Rafed English

Brief Commentary On Hadeeth Al-Kisaa (Tradition of the Cloak)

Brief Commentary On Hadeeth Al-Kisaa (Tradition of the Cloak) by : Jerrmein Abu Shahba


Bismillah Ar-Rahman Ar-Raheem

The Tradition of the Cloak (Hadeeth Al Kisaa) is an authentic and frequently narrated (Mutawatir) tradition that has been cited by recognized Islamic sources in the major schools of thoughts in Islam in the books of exegesis, tradition, and history. The Tradition of the Cloak is further validated by its agreement and consistency with the Holy Qur’an and its teachings, direction, and essence.

No one can deny or doubt that this great tradition came to us from the Holy Prophet (SA) in honor of his purified Household (AhlulBayt). There are slight variations in the way that this tradition is relayed; however, the core of the tradition in its meaning and essence is the same. The significance behind this event points to the fact that the Prophet (SA) intended to apply the verse of Purification (Ayat Al Tat-heer) on these holy personalities under the cloak, as he aimed to confirm that they are the ones meant and intended in the holy verse and not anyone else.

Some of us hear this tradition being recited in gatherings at the mosque or at the commencement of Islamic programs. But do we all recognize and fully understand the obvious and latent meanings behind the details of this of this great event? We take this opportunity to begin in the name of Allah (SWT) in an attempt to shed the spotlight on this beautiful narration with the hope of extracting some jewels of lessons for our benefit and the benefit of our fellow believers.
Before we delve in the analysis of this narration, let us first survey the Islamic books to gain or increase our level of confidence regarding the authenticity of Hadeeth Al Kisaa. As mentioned, both schools of thought in Islam have related the Tradition of the Cloak in the major books of narration. There are countless sources and references to support that; however for the sake of brevity, we will only cite a handful of examples to demonstrate the recurrence of this tradition.
Minhaaj Al Sunnah – Volume 3, page 3; Sahih Tirmidhi – Volume 5, page 351, Hadeeth # 3105; Hakim Al Nisapouri (Mustadrak Al Sahihain) – Volume 3, page 146); Sahih Muslim – Volume 4, page 1883, Hadeeth # 2424; Masnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal – Volume 6, page 292

The Tradition of the Cloak has been narrated by various individuals and examples of the sources for each of these narrators are:

Narrator: Ibn Abbas

Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Al Masnad) – Volume 1, page 331; Ibn Abi ‘Asem (Al Sunnah) – Volume 2, page 602, Hadeeth 1351; Al Nisaai (Al Sunan Al Kubra) – Volume 5, page 112, Hadeeth 8409; Al Tabrani (Mu’jam Al Kabir) – Volume 12, page 77, Hadeeth # 12593; Al Hakim (Al Mustadrak) – Volume 3, page 133

Narrator: A’yesha bint Abi Bakr

Ibn Abi Shayba (Al Mussanaf) – Volume 6, page 373, Hadeeth # 32093; Muslim (Al Jame’a Al Sahih) – Volume 2, page 283, Hadeeth 2424; Al Hakim (Al Mustadrak) – Volume 3, page 147

Narrator: Abu Sa’eed Al Khidr

Ibn A’saker (Tarikh) – Volume 14, page 146, Hadeeth # 3459; Ibn Jareer Al Tabari (Jame’a Al Bayaan) – Volume 22, page 9, Hadeeth # 21727

Narrator: Umm Salama

Abu Al Shaykh (Tabaqaat Al Muhaditheen) – Volume 4, page 149, Hadeeth # 915; Al Khatib (Al Mutafaq Wal Muftaraq) – Volume 2, page 11588, Hadeeth # 723; Ibn A’saker (Tarikh) – Volume 42, page 136, Hadeeth # 8518

Abdullah ibn Ja'far Al Tayyar

Abu Bakr Al Bazaar (Al Masnad) – Volume 6, page 210, Hadeeth # 2251; Abu Abdullah Al Hakim (Al Mustadrak) – Volume 3, page 148, Hadeeth # 4709

Narrator: Anas ibn Malik

Ibn Hanbal (Al Masnad) – Volume 3, page 259, 285; Tirmidhi (Al Jame’a Al Sahih) – Volume 5, page 142, Hadeeth # 3217; Tabari (Jame’a Al Bayan) – Volume 22, page 5
• Allamah Al Azizi: “The term ‘AhlulBayt’ refers to Ali, Fatima Al Zahra, and their progeny”. Source: Al Seraj Al Muneer Volume 1, page 46

• Fakhr Al Razi: “There is no doubt that Fatima, Ali, Hasan, and Husain had a special relationship with the Prophet (SA) and was attached to him, and this is apparent according to the recurrent narration, hence they must be the ones referred to as “Ahl”.

• Ibn Hajar Al Makki: “The Verse of Purification (33:33) according to most exegesists was revealed in regards to Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husain.” Source: Sawa’eq Al Muhreqa, pg. 220
عن جابر بن عبد الله الأنصاري
The Tradition of the Cloak has been narrated by the tongue of one of the very close and pious companions of the Holy Prophet (SA), Jabir ibn Abdullah Al Ansari, as related by many sources of the School of AhlulBayt, e.g. Sheikh Al Bahrani in his book A’walem Al Uloom. Jabir narrates this important incident through the tongue of the Master Lady of the Universe, Fatima Al Zahra (AS). It is imperative to familiarize ourselves with the character of this noble companion as he is the main narrator of this well-known and important tradition. It is commonly agreed that the higher the level of trust and degree of confidence we gain in the narrator, the higher is the confidence we will have in the tradition relayed by that narrator.
Who exactly is Jabir ibn Abdullah Al Ansari and what is notable about him?

He was the son of 'Amru` b. Huzam al-Ansa`ri al-Khazraji. He devoted his life to the members of the House of the Prophet (SA). He was the last survival among the Companions of the Prophet (SA) and he was a prominent companion of Imam Al Baqir (AS). He is unique in that he had the honor of delivering the greetings of the Prophet (SA) to his grandson Imam Al Baqir (AS).

Jabir took part in eighteen campaigns headed by the Prophet and fought in the Battle of Siffeen headed by the Commander of the faithful Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS). Jabir loved Ali (AS) very much and he was very obedient to the members of the House (AhlulBayt). He would walk through the streets of Medina and say: "'Ali is the best of all mankind. Whoever denies that is an unbeliever. O People of Ansar, educate your children to love Ali."

In testimony to the piety of Jabir ibn Abdullah Al Ansari, Imam Al-Sadiq (AS) reported on the authority of his grandfathers, “Allah revealed this verse:

‘Say I demand not, of you any reward for it (the toils of preaching) except the love of my relations.’” (42:22)

Then the Prophet (SA) rose and said: 'A right for me has been imposed on you. Will you pay it to me?' No one answered him, so he went away. On the following day, he stood up and asked the same question. No one answered him, so he left them and went away. On the third day, he also asked the same question. Then he explained: 'The right is neither gold nor silver nor food nor a drink.'

'Therefore, say it,' they demanded. 'Allah has revealed these Words of His: 'Say I demand not, of you any reward for it (the toils of preaching) except the love of my relations.' 'This is the best right,' they said" Then Imam Al Sadiq (AS) remarked: "By Allah, no one was loyal to this right except seven persons. They are Salman, Abu Dharr, Ammar, al-Muqdad ibn Al-Aswad, Jabir ibn 'Abdullah al-Ansari, the retainer of Allah's Apostle (SA), and Zayd ibn Arqam.

The Prophet (SA) asked Allah (SWT) twenty-five times to forgive Ja`bir. He died at the age of ninety-four.

Recognizing the great status of the noble companion Jabir ibn Abdullah Al Ansari, we can now understand why he was honored to narrate the famous Hadeeth Al Kisaa which will resonate in the ears of all Muslims till the end of time.
عن فاطمة الزهراء ( عليها السَّلام ) بنت رسول الله ( صلَّى الله عليه و آله )
Jabir ibn Abdullah Al Ansari, the trustworthy companion of the Holy Prophet (SA) narrates Hadeeth Al Kisaa directly from the pure tongue of the Master Lady of the Universe, Lady Fatima Al Zahra, the beloved daughter of the Seal of Messengers. Her esteemed status and immaculate personality cannot be questioned and is not in need for introduction. Her infallibility and purity has been demonstrated in countless occasions in history such as the Event of Mubahala, and in many verses in the Qur’an such as the Verse of Qurba (42:22), Surat Al Insaan, and Surat Al Kawthar. Since she is the narrator of this tradition and knowing her status of infallibility, everything she relates to us is the complete truth without any doubt in any of the details presented.
There has been difference in opinion as to whether the event of the Tradition of the Cloak took place in the house of Lady Fatima (AS) or Umm Salamah, a wife of the Prophet (SA). The answer to that is that this event took place in the house of Fatima (AS) and she is the narrator as the event is told by her tongue. She narrates that the Prophet (SA) entered her presence, and then following him, her husband Imam Ali (SA) and her sons Hasan and Husain (AS).

It follows logically that it must have been her home that they entered and not the house of Umm Salamah. One may question what difference it makes whether the event took place in either house as it doesn’t change or affect the overall story. That is true; however, if the Tradition of the Cloak took place in the home of Umm Salamah, some Muslims may have brought forth the argument that the virtue of infallibility and purification also includes the wives of the Prophet (SA).

The fact that the Prophet (SA) declined the request of Umm Salamah to enter the cloak, as we will see later, although he acknowledged her positive status and that she is “good”, eliminates the idea that the wives are included among the People of the Cloak.
دَخَلَ عَلَيَّ أبي رَسُولُ اللهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) فِي بَعضِ الأيَّامِ فَقَالَ : أَلسَّلامُ عَلَيكِ يا فاطِمَةُ ، فَقُلتُ : وَ عَلَيكَ السَّلامُ ،
One day, my father the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his Household, visited me, "Peace be upon you, O Fatimah!" he said. "Peace be upon you, too." I answered.
When one of us meet a friend or neighbor, we typically exchange hellos and convey our greetings to that person. And the other person usually replies back with a ‘good morning’ or ‘Walaykum asalam’ (Peace be upon you). But what really is the extent and degree of that ‘salam’ (peace) that is extended between two different people? And is there any guarantee that two Muslims who are exchanging greetings of peace will actually achieve the practical and spiritual peace with each other? Often times, we find two individuals exchanging expressions of greetings or peace in the morning, yet in the afternoon they are busy fighting with each other over petty issues or otherwise. Thus, we may agree that it is not necessarily the case that all the words and actions of the layperson or common Muslim is always true and/or achieved.

However, when we speak about an infallible personality, we must recognize that all their words and actions are exactly on the dot and at the highest level of accuracy without exaggeration or underestimation. So, if they make a judgment, it is a just verdict, and if they make a decision, it is a wise course of action. Along the same lines, if an infallible guide who has been purified and divinely appointed as a guide for mankind, performs a simple action such as greet or convey ‘salam’ to another person, then we should not interpret that greeting as ‘routine’ or trivial. Rather, the peace which an infallible personality conveys to another person is to be interpreted as glad tidings and a guarantee for exceptional peace at all levels. Surely, those who represent Allah (SWT) cannot exchange peace with a person whom Allah (SWT) is displeased with or has committed injustice to others.

Furthermore, one can logically deduce that if the two individuals exchanging peace and greetings are both infallible and divinely chosen for the guidance of mankind, then the product of such greetings must be at a grand level which one cannot comprehend. The degree of peace, the percent of guarantee, and the secrets behind that greeting is beyond our ability to fathom or reason.

In the Tradition of the Cloak, the narration begins with greeting of peace by the Holy Prophet (SA) after he has entered the presence of his daughter Fatima Al Zahra (AS) who replies back affirming the peace to her father.

As discussed, this exchange of peace by two holy and exceptional personalities, the Seal of Messengers and the best of Creation, Muhammad, along with the Master Lady of the universe, Fatima, yields nothing but unbreakable unity between two purified souls which carries with it all the meanings of peace, tranquility, attachment, love, and devotion, etc. Such feeling of peace is not bound by time or place nor is it conditional on mundane factors. This expression of peace by the Prophet (SA) to Fatima (AS) and vice versa is in fact an act of worship that is blessed by Allah (SWT) as He (SWT) instructed the believers in Surat Al Ahzaab, Verse 56:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تسليما.
SurelyAllah and His angels bless the Prophet; O you who believe! call for (Divine) blessings on him and salute him with a (becoming) salutation. (33:56)
In this verse, it is interesting to note that Allah the Almighty Creator first announces that He Himself along with the angels are praying on the Prophet. Then He (SWT) conveys His order to those who believe (hence excluding nonbelievers) to call for the blessings upon him and to salute him. This action of benediction and salutation to the Holy Messenger (SA) is an act of worship and obedience and is in fact obligatory upon all believers.

Furthermore, the verse highlights that only a true believer is given the permission to share in this blessed action of salutations and the servant is the one honored by having the ability and success in delivering these greetings to the beloved one.

If this is the grand station of Prophet Muhammad (SA) as depicted by verse 33:56, what about the station of Lady Fatima? Besides recognizing the fact that she is the Master Lady of the universe, we are to recall the authentic and well-known narration in all schools of thought where the Prophet (SA) emphasizes, “Fatima is a part of me, whoever harms her harms me, and whatever pleases her pleases me.”

So, if Lady Fatima (AS) is from the self of the Prophet (SA), then by the rules of logical correlation, we can deduce that when Allah (SWT) and the angels are sending their blessings on the Prophet (SA) as mentioned in verse 33:56, they are also sending their blessings and salutations to his daughter Fatima! That is not surprising as the angels are known to accompany Lady Fatima in numerous occasions and descend upon her home regularly.
Physical Discomfort
قالَ : إنّي أَجِدُ في بَدَني ضَعفاً ، فَقُلتُ لَهُ : أُعِيذُكَ باللهِ يا أَبَتاهُ مِنَ الضَّعفِ.
"I can feel some fatigue in my body," he said to me, and I answered, "I pray Allah to protect you O father against fatigue."
The Messenger of Allah (SWT) then expresses to his daughter his feeling of weakness which he experiences physically. It is not uncommon for parents to express physical or any other discomfort and seek help from their children. What is expected is for the children and family members to rush to the aid of their loved ones, especially the elderly. Furthermore, it is narrated that
من شكى إلى مؤمن فقد شكى إلى الله ومن شكى لغير مؤمن فقد شكى الله.
Whoever complains to a believer has complained to Allah and whoever complains to a nonbeliever has complained about Allah.” (Bihaar Al Anwaar)
Hence, we learn that there is no problem in sharing our complaints to a believer who will give us an open ear and may support and assist us in a positive manner.

However, when we speak about providing assistant to a father who is not like any father, a guardian who is not like any guardian, a family member who is not like any family member, and a human being who is by far the best of creations, then the status of he or she who is given the opportunity to provide that aid must be noted and appreciated. Certainly it is the honor of Lady Fatima (AS) to rush to the aid of her father. Lady Fatima (AS) who by the testimony of the Prophet (SA) is “the mother of her father” spontaneously assumes the role of motherhood with all the love, care, and nurture that a mother gives to her darling.

Actually, this reminds us of the same position which her own mother Lady Khadija (AS) encountered after the Be’that (official inauguration as messenger of God) of the Prophet (SA) when he came down from Cave Hiraa' after receiving the first Revelation of Surat Al ‘Alaq. When he came to the house of Lady Khadija (AS), he requested his wife to cover him with a blanket. This scene is displayed in the Qur’an at the commencement of Surat Al Muddather where the Prophet (SA) was referred to as the “cloaked one” and also in Surat Al Muzzammel where he was referred to as the “enshrouded one”. Lady Khadija rushed to tend to her husband and cover him up and from there he earned his nickname which Allah (SWT) referred him to in the abovementioned chapters of Qur’an which were named by these titles of the Prophet (SA).

It became Prophet Muhammad's custom each year to spend the holy month of Ramadan in seclusion and reflection in a cave on the mountain of Hiraa’ which is located on the outskirts of Makkah. Lady Khadija (AS) would always make sure that he was provided with food and drink during his retreat. Towards the end of one Ramadan when he was forty years old, Muhammad (SA) suddenly appeared at their house in the middle of the night saying, "Cover me up, cover me up!"

Lady Khadijah (AS) quickly she wrapped a blanket around his shoulders and she asked him to describe exactly what had happened. He told her how a being whom he had never seen before - angel Jibrael - had appeared to him while he was worshipping in Cave Hiraa’ and had instructed him to, "Read!" This state of physical discomfort would be experienced by the Prophet (SA) whenever he was about to receive a grand revelation from God through angel Jibrael (AS). This was the case in Cave Hiraa' when he received the word of God for the first time. The fact that the Prophet (SA) has just experienced physical comfort of the same nature which urged him to make the same request for covering him, may be an indicator that he is also about to receive divine revelation, and that is exactly what happened (as we will see)!

It is known in the historical accounts of the prophet’s autobiography that Lady Fatima (AS) was the source of comfort and consolation for her father. Whenever he didn’t feel well or suffered pain, he would rush to the house of Fatima (AS) where he found relief, comfort, and peace. Whenever her father felt distressed, he looked at her face and his worries and grief would disappear just like Imam Ali (AS) said about his wife, “Whenever I looked at her all depression and sadness was lifted from my heart.” Otherwise, why didn’t the Prophet (SA) go to any of his wives to seek comfort since a man usually feels tranquility with his wife, as the Qur’an says:

“And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion.” (30:21)

And Allah (SWT) also defined the relationship between a husband and wife as:

“They are your garments (Libaas) and you are their garments.” (2:187)

But instead of going to any of his wives, the Prophet (SA) went to his daughter Fatima because she was “the mother of her father” (Umm Abeeha) and he would feel most peace and relief when he went to see Fatima. Hence, it is not surprising that Al Hakim narrates “Whenever The Prophet (SA) used to travel the last person he would see was Fatima (AS). When he returned from his travel the first person he would go to see would be Fatima.”

Lady Fatima (AS) seeks refuge from Allah (SWT) for his physical weakness, and there is no doubt that this feeling of weakness is only temporary and will disappear as the whole world is in need of this great energy of the Prophet (SA) that is crystalized in his mercy, goodness, and generosity, etc.
Station of The Yememite Cloak
فَقَالَ : يا فاطِمَةُ إِيتيني بِالكِساءِ اليَمانِيِّ فَغَطّينِي بهِ .
What is the significance of the Kisaa (cloak)? It is a piece of cloth or sheet which the Prophet (SA) requested to cover him to ease his discomfort. Here, one may think that it is so insignificant that history records the Prophet (SA) experiencing exhaustion or discomfort and requesting a cloak. Furthermore, why is the Prophet (SA) specifically asking for a cloak to cover him when he could’ve asked for something to eat or drink?
As believers, we are to be reminded that the wisdom of the Almighty Creator (SWT) is greater than what our minds perceive and He (SWT) does not do anything in vain. If it were not for the Yeminite Cloak (Kisaa) which the Prophet (SA) requested, the Tradition of the Cloak would not have existed, and the purification verse (Ayat Al Tat-heer) which is the ultimate result of this event wouldn’t have been revealed in this incident. The Kisaa is the means by which the members of his household are gathered to set the stage for the revelation of the Purification verse (33:33).
As we will discuss later, it is narrated in the Tradition of the Cloak that the total individuals who were granted permission to enter under the cloak with the Prophet (SA) were four: Ali ibn Abi Talib, Lady Fatima, and their sons Hasan and Husain. In addition, archangel Jibrael (AS) was also given divine and prophetic permission to join the holy five in this exceptional setting. With the knowledge that all these divine personalities were under the cloak and didn’t enter its protection without the permission of the Prophet (SA), we can better appreciate the significance of the cloak. Though it may be a materialistic item, the Kisaa is a symbol of protection, a sign of unity and purity, and the representation of the infallibility of the Holy Five.
The cloak can be seen as analogous to the “Cave of Refuge” (كهف الورى) as they are described in the beautiful invocation of Salawat Sha’baneyah. It is similar to the Arc of Prophet Nuh (AS) which the Prophet (SA) resembles to his purified household, as narrated in the famous Hadith As-Safinah by Anas ibn Malik that the Messenger of Allah (SWT) said:
"مثل أهل بيتى كمثل سفينة نوح من ركبها نجا ومن تخلف عنها غرق."
Surely the likeness of my AhlulBayt is similar to Noah's Ark, whoever boards it will attain salvation and whoever remains behind is drowned. (Al Durr Al Manthur) Whoever rides the Arc of Noah or more appropriately the Arc of the AhlulBayt (AS) of Prophet Muhammad (AS) will be saved and will attain salvation in both worlds.
In this context, we can view the Cloak of the Prophet to be similar to the Arc of the Prophet (SA) in that whoever recognizes the significance behind the immaculate personalities under the cloak who have been purified by divine command, will also attain the blessings of the cloak! An example of such blessings is demonstrated at the conclusion of this narration where Imam Ali (AS) asks the Prophet (SA) what is the significance of this blessed gathering under the cloak and he replies back with the rewards that the Shi’as and lovers of AhlulBayt (AS) will attain if they recite and appreciate this gathering. We shall discuss this aspect in detail later.

Even though only the infallible guides are admitted entrance under this purified cloak, we as the lovers and devotees of the Prophet (SA) and his holy household can also aim to seek permission from Allah (SWT) and the Messenger (SA) to join them under the cloak. We can follow the example of Archangel Jibrael (AS) who recognized that his station was no were close to that of the AhlulBayt (AS) despite his high rank in Allah’s eyes, yet he still expressed his devotion to them by seeking their unity and proximity.
Radiance Of The Holy Prophet
فَأَتَيتُهُ بِالكِساءِ اليَمانِيِّ فَغَطّيتُهُ بِهِ وَ صِرتُ أَنظُرُ إِلَيهِ وَ إِذا وَجهُهُ يَتَلَأ لَأ كَأَنَّهُ البَدرُ فِي لَيلَةِ تمامِهِ وَ كَمالِهِ
I brought him the Yemeni cloak and covered him with it. I then kept on looking at his face, which was glittering like a moon at the night of its fullness and perfection.
Lady Fatima (AS) brings the cloak to her father and she covers him. A parent in general appreciates and prefers the service of their children more than a stranger or even a housemaid. There is no comparison to the feeling that the parent gets when they experience care and affection from their own children compared to others. Lady Fatima (AS) went on looking and gazing at him as she covered her father.

According to the Islamic code of conduct, it is highly recommended for a person to look at the faces of their parents and persist in doing so. (Fiqh Al Zahra) On the other hand, it is narrated that he who gives his parent an abhorrent look, Allah (SWT) will not accept anything from him. With that in mind, imagine if the father of a person is the prophet of God, never mind the Seal of Messengers and best of creations! It is also recommended to look at the face of a knowledgeable scholar or even at the door of a scholar.

From these traditions, we come to understand that there is indeed a positive effect that we acquire from “looking” at a scholar or parent, and that effect is not limited to the materialistic aspect but is rather spiritual and long-lasting. Same is the case regarding the Holy Ka’aba which we are encouraged to gaze upon.

That is because looking at someone who have reached the stage of perfection or has come close to it will in turn make that person approach the stage of perfection that is personified in that person or thing. That’s why it is recommended to look at the face of an infallible person such as Imam Ali (AS) as the Prophet (SA) said in his regards, “Looking at the face of Ali is worship”. (Wasa’el Al Shi’a)

If gazing at the face of a scholar is recommended, then it is not surprising that he who is the gate of knowledge be one whom the Prophet (SA) would specifically identify him as deserving of such merit.

Upon observing her father, Lady Fatima (AS) observed that his face was “glittering like a moon at the night of its fullness”. It is interesting that this is how the Prophet (SA) appeared even though he just expressed physical weakness.

It may seem like a contradiction but the reality is that Lady Fatima (AS) became preoccupied and captured by the beauty and splendor of her father. She knew very well that her father was not like any father or man; her father was the best of creation and the Seal of Messengers who is delivering the final revelation to all of mankind till the end of time! In her mind, Lady Fatima (AS) was not simply looking at her father, but rather, the divine representative of her time who has authority on her and all the believers.

Words could not describe what she observed upon looking at the Prophet (SA) under the cloak. However, the analogy Lady Fatima (AS) presents gives a hint and draws a good picture of what magnanimity of appearance emanated from her father’s face. She testifies that her father’s face “was glittering like a moon at the night of its fullness and perfection”. It is the course of nature that when the lunar month reaches the middle, the moon becomes full and thus, we observe it to be radiating from the sky like a piece of diamond in the midst of a black sea.

The scene is beautiful and sensational as it urges us to reflect on the Almighty Creator who has brought into existence every beautiful creation of His and bestowed us the ability to observe and recognize that. Due to the exceptionally beautiful scene of the full moon in the midst of the sky, it has become the tradition of the Arabs in particular to draw an analogy of the full moon to anything that is distinctly beautiful and radiant.

The blessed face of the Prophet (SA) which constantly appears to be radiant with the glow of light emanating from him is certainly analogous to the full moon at the middle of the month. Actually, the radiance of splendor from the Prophet’s appearance is much greater than that of a full moon glittering at the night of its fullness and perfection!

Furthermore, it should be noted that the physical or materialistic beauty can only be recognized by those who have eyes of the heart that can be able to identify that beauty. If we compare that physical beauty emanating from the Prophet (SA) to his inner and spiritual beauty, we will surely recognize that the latter is much greater and cannot be measured by a normal human being. It is certainly quite interesting that the person who is testifying on behalf of the Prophet (SA) about his splendor in appearance is herself the manifestation of the splendor of creation!
Etiquettes Of The Ahlulbayt
فَما كَانَت إِلاّساعَةً و إذا بوَلَدِيَ الحَسَنِ قَد أَقبَلَ وَ قالَ : أَلسَّلامُ عَلَيكِ يا أُمّاهُ ، فَقُلتُ : وَ عَلَيكَ السَّلامُ يا قُرَّةَ عَيِني وَ ثَمَرَةَ فُؤادِي
No more than a while passed when my son al-Hasan came in, "Peace be upon you, mother!" he greeted. "Peace be upon you, too, O delight of my eye and fruit of my heart!" I replied.
The Tradition of the Cloak essentially begins with the sequence of events commencing with the entrance of Imam Hasan ibn Ali (AS) who is the first person to enter the presence of the Prophet (SA) after encountering his mother. Lady Zahra (AS) narrates that her son Hasan enters home and conveys his greetings of peace to her.

This scene is an example of the etiquette and manners which children should observe when they enter their homes and meet their family members, especially the parents.

Unfortunately nowadays, we find that many kids come back from school or work and fail to extend proper greetings to the members of their home as they run off straight into their rooms as if they are living in a hotel or dorm. This incorrect behavior does not reflect the manners of believers who follow the path of AhlulBayt (AS) and who are members of a unified family institution that represents the overall unity of the nation.

When entering or leaving your house, a person must acknowledge its inhabitants by greeting with the label of Islam, 'Asalam 'Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh (peace and mercy of Allah be with you). As a Muslim, one should not neglect this Islamic greeting by replacing it with another phrase, such as 'Good Morning,' or 'Hello.' Pronouncing the Salaam is the sign of Islam and the phrase that the Messenger of Allah (saw) recommended and practiced.

So important is the etiquette to be displayed upon entering a home that it is even narrated that if a person enters their home and there is no one present in it, it is still recommended to pronounce greetings (salam) upon entry in vacant places and that greeting is directed to other living things that may be inhabiting your surroundings.

Also among the etiquettes of entering a house is to make your presence known to those inside before you approach them. Also, one should avoid startling or frightening them and give a head notice before you enter their presence suddenly.

In response to her son Hasan, Lady Fatima (AS) conveys her greetings to her beloved son and her eldest darling. Furthermore, she refers to him with two different titles: ‘the delight of my eye and fruit of my heart’. One can very well imagine the grand stature of he who possesses the honor of being delight of the eyes of the Master Lady of the universe and the purified daughter of the Seal of Prophets!

Lady Fatima is she whom her father has testified on her behalf, “Fatima is part of me, and whoever pleases her, pleases me."(Al-Sawa'eq Al-Muhriqa)

She is also the one whom he said to her, “O Fatima, verily Allah is angry when you are angry.” (Mustadrak Al-Hakim) Therefore, as we understand from the combination of both traditions, the position of Lady Fatima (AS) towards anything and anyone is equivalent to the position of Allah (SWT). So, if we observe that Fatima is pleased with person ‘A’, then Allah (SWT) is also pleased with person ‘A’ and vice versa.

The title which Fatima labels her son Hasan as “delight of my eyes” certainly indicates the peak of pleasure and joy that she feels about him! Furthermore, if we contemplate about the most important organs in our body, we will find the eyes to be irreplaceable and very precious. So when Fatima (AS) says that Hasan is the “delight” of her eyes, she has associated her delight with a most valuable part of the body.

Moreover, she describes him to be “the fruit of her heart”. The heart is in fact the most important vital organ in the body of a human being without which a person cannot live. The expression “fruit of the heart” speaks volumes of the special position which Imam Hasan (AS) enjoys in regards to his mother. He is the “fruit” which refers to the purified progeny that is bestowed to Lady Zahra (AS), just as she is the “Kawthar” (the abundant good) bestowed as a divine gift to her father.
فَقالَ : يا أُمّاهُ إِنّي أَشَمُّ عِندَكِ رائِحَةً طَيِّبَةً كَأَنَّها رائِحَةُ جَدِي رَسُولِ اللهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) ، فَقُلتُ : نَعَم إِنَّ جَدَّكَ تَحتَ الكِساء ،
I replied. "O mother," he said, "I can smell a pleasing scent as if it is the scent of my grandfather the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his Household."
"Yes, it is," I answered, "Your grandfather is now under the cloak."
After the exchange of pure greetings between the Master Lady of the Universe and the Master Youth of Paradise, Imam Hasan (AS) remarks that he smells a pleasant scent at home which resembles the fragrance of his grandfather - the Prophet (SA). This is the second time in the Tradition of the Cloak that the Holy Prophet (SA) is described physically with a positive attribute.

The first being his shining face that resembles a full moon, and the second being the good scent which emanates from his pure being.

It is not surprising as all the prophets and messengers have good fragrance and there was never anything shameful or humiliating ever displayed from them. Then one can imagine the Seal of Prophets and Messengers who is the best of creation! Surely, he must enjoy physical and materialistic purity that complements the spiritual purity.

This is proven by virtue of the purification verse in Verse 33 of Surat Al Ahzaab, “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purification.”

Every person in this world has two aspects of his life, apparent and concealed which are physical and spiritual, respectively. The balance in the development of a good human being is obligatory for both activities. Islam is a clean religion and prefers a person to be clean physically and have pure thoughts. Physical purity provides a person respect and honor in the eyes of the world.

Allah (SWT) advises the believers to clean themselves for such a condition suits their spiritual state and nature. Cleanliness is considered a form of worship by believers, and is therefore a source of great relief and pleasure to them. In many verses of the Qur’an, Allah (SWT) draws attention to the believers’ spiritual and physical purity.

Prophet Muhammad (SA) often stressed the importance of being clean as he said, “Cleanliness is half of faith”. (Sahih Muslim) The Holy Qur’an also refers to the importance of wearing clean clothes,

“Purify your garments. And shun uncleanness.” (74:4-5)

Furthermore, physical cleanliness is important because it shows one's respect for other people. Indeed, respecting other people requires taking care of one's physical appearance.

Having a pleasant fragrance is certainly a sign of cleanliness and the Prophet (SA) is the best exemplar for both physical and spiritual cleanliness combined together and has apparently attained the reputation of having good scent as it is narrated that a beautiful scent of musk used to emanate from his drops of sweat. This is similar to the scent of musk from Lady Fatima (SA) which came from Paradise, and in that context the Prophet (SA) used to smell his daughter and remark that “Whenever I yearned for the smell of Paradise, I would smell the fragrance of my daughter Fatima”. (Muntakhab Kanz Al-‘Omaal)

So Imam Hasan (AS) recognized his grandfather’s presence at home just by his purified scent. Sure enough, Lady Fatima (AS) confirms that deduction and informs Hasan that his grandfather is indeed under the cloak.
Imam Hasan – Director of the Prophet’s Pond
فَأَقبَلَ الحَسَنُ نَحوَ الكِساء وَ قالَ : أَلسَّلامُ عَلَيكَ يا جَدَّاهُ يا رَسُولَ اللهِ أَتَأذَنُ لي أَن أَدخُلَ مَعَكَ تَحتَ الكِساءِ ؟ فَقالَ : وَ عَلَيكَ السَّلامُ يا وَلَدِي وَ يا صاحِبَ حَوضِي قَد أَذِنتُ لَكَ ، فَدَخَلَ مَعَهُ تَحتَ الكِساءِ .
Al-Hasan moved towards the cloak and said, "Peace be upon you, O grandfather, Allah’s Messenger. Will you allow me to be with you under this cloak?"
My father replied, "Peace be upon you too, my son and director of my Pond. I allow you. "Al-Hasan then went under the cloak with his grandfather.
The natural reaction of a person who recognizes the presence of the Holy Prophet (SA) in the same location is to rush towards him and seek his proximity. Imam Al Hasan (AS) approaches the cloak which the Prophet (SA) is covered with and conveys his greetings by pronouncing the Salam. He does so by addressing him first as his grandfather, and then as the Messenger of Allah. This is for us to remind ourselves of the blood relation which Imam Hasan (AS) and his siblings share with the Prophet (SA).

Imam Al Hasan (AS) then makes a specific request from the Prophet (SA) where he seeks proximity to the Prophet (SA) by asking permission to enter under the cloak with him. In the mind of Imam Hasan (AS), there is no other reason to make that request other than enjoy the company of the Prophet (SA) and share from his blessings. He has yet to learn of the grand honor which Allah (SWT) will bestow him and his immediate family under the cloak!
The Prophet (SA) then replies back the Salam to his beloved grandson Hasan whom he considers as his own son by referring to him as "ولدي". It is not a mistake or exaggeration that the Prophet (SA) refers to him as his own son as there are people who try to distance Hasan and Husain from the Prophet (SA) by saying that they are the sons of Fatima the daughter of the Prophet (SA) and not the Prophet.
The Holy Prophet loved his two grandsons, Hasan and Husain, dearly, and since he had no surviving sons of his own, he used to call them his “sons” out of deep affection. In many occasions the Prophet (SA) declared, "Hasan and Husain are my children". (Islam: Faith, Practice, and History)
Because of this, Imam Ali (AS) would say to his other children, "You are my children and Hasan and Husain are the children of the Prophet." (Lantern of the Path) Hasan and Husain themselves used to call the Prophet (SA) as “father” and didn’t do so with their biological father Imam Ali (AS) until the Prophet (SA) departed this world. During the lifetime of the Prophet (SA), Hasan (AS) used to refer to his father Imam Ali (AS) as Abal Husain, while Husain used to call him Abal Hasan.
Furthermore, the Messenger of Allah (SWT) confirms that their station to him is equivalent to being his “sons” in the Event of Mubahala (Imprecation) where the following verse was revealed:
“And to him who disputes with you therein after knowledge has come to you, say: “Come, let us summon our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and your selves, then let us invoke and lay the curse of God upon the liars.” (3:61)
In the ninth year after Hijra (migration), Prophet Muhammad (SA) sent a message to the Christians of Najran asking them to believe in him as a prophet of God and accept Jesus (peace be upon him) as prophet of God according to the teachings of the Qur’an. A delegation of seventy Christian scholars visited the Prophet (SA) and he explained to the Christian scholars the concept of divinity and prophethood but the Christians did not accept the reasoning.
Then the above-mentioned verse was revealed inviting the Christians for invoking the curse of God to determine who is denier of the truth. In a large public gathering, his “daughter” represented Lady Fatima (S.A.), his “self” was represented by his cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS), and his “sons” were none other than his two grandsons Hasan and Husain (AS).
Prophet Muhammad (SA) had orders from Almighty Allah (SWT) through the Verse of Mubahala to take Hasanand Hussain (AS) as his children with him and this was not a personal decision on his own. Their position as “sons” to the Prophet was stamped and approved by Allah (SWT) from above the heavens!
When the chief of the Christian delegation witnessed these five personalities, he was awestruck with their heavenly appearance and counseled his followers not to ask the Prophet to invoke God’s curse, saying that “If these Godly individuals curse us, I am afraid we will be destroyed.” (Madarejun Nubuwwa) He made a peace pact, offered the Prophet (SA) gifts and left in peace.
The next label which the Prophet (SA) describes Imam Al Hasan (AS) is "صاحب حوضي" (the director of my Pond).
One may question why the role of providing food to eat was not specified in traditions as it was with providing water to drink. That is because the need to quench the thirst on the Day of Resurrection will be greater than that of eating. Actually there are numerous narrations where the Prophet (SA) labels Imam Ali (AS) as "صاحب حوضي". In reference to Imam Ali (AS), the Prophet (SA) has said,
“Whomever among you would like to save himself from the troubles of the Day of Judgment, let him take my guardian as their guardian, and let him follow my successor and Caliph after me, Ali ibn Abi Talib, for he is the owner of my Pool (Hawd), he keeps his enemies away from it and quenches the thirst of his devout supporters. Whoever is not granted the permission to drink from it will continuously suffer from thirst.” (Kitab Al Mizan).
There is no contradiction that the Pond (Hawd) belongs to the Prophet (SA) on the Day of Resurrection, while Ali plays the role of “quencher”, while Imam Hasan (AS) is its director (صاحب). For one particular task, there may be various roles with different degrees and the laws may differ in different situations.
After all, Allah (SWT) bestowed the Pond to the Prophet (SA) while giving the authority of direction to Imam Hasan (AS) so that he shares the honor of his grandfather. In other traditions it is apparent that all of the Infallible Imams (AS) will participate in quenching the thirst of the people from that Hawd.
The Prophet (SA) grants Imam Hasan (AS) the permission to enter the Kisaa. This is the first of the series of divinely approved permissions which the Prophet (SA) gives for the entrance under the cloak. It must be noted that the permission of the Prophet (SA) is not from his own will or preference as the Qur’an emphasizes:
وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ. إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى.
“Nor does he speak out of desire. It is naught but revelation that is revealed.” (53:3-4)
This Qur’anic verse is in agreement with the Bible where it is quoted regarding the station of the Prophet (SA), "He does not speak of his own will", and has also been mentioned in Deuteronomy 18:18.

"Then the Lord said to me (Musa): "I will raise up for them a prophet like you, one of their own race, and I will put my words into his mouth. He shall convey all my commands to them."

It is also mentioned in John 16: 18: (‘Isa said): "However, when he comes who is the spirit of truth, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but will tell only what he hears; and he will make known to you the things that are coming."

The Holy Prophet (SA) was always in communion with Allah (SWT). Whatever he said was the Word of Allah and his actions were the fulfillment of the divine will. So when the Prophet (SA) gives permission for Imam Hasan (AS) to enter the cloak, it is equivalent to divine permission from above the heavens. This significance of this divine permission to enter the Kisaa will be realized as we continue to analyze the Tradition of the Cloak.
The Divinely Chosen One
فَدَنَا الحُسَينُ ( عليه السَّلام ) نحوَ الكِساءِ وَ قالَ : أَلسَّلامُ عَلَيكَ يا جَدَّاهُ يا مَنِ أختارَهُ اللهُ
Al-Husain then approached towards the cloak and said, "Peace be upon you, O grandfather! Peace be upon you, O he whom Allah has chosen!
The scene repeats itself three more times with Imam Husain (AS), then his father Imam Ali (AS) and then finally with the Master Lady of the Universe, Lady Fatima (AS). Both Imam Husain (AS) and Imam Ali (AS) enter home and convey their Islamic greetings to Lady Fatima (AS). Interestingly, they both remark that they smell a pleasant fragrance that is similar to the scent of the Holy Prophet (SA). Their observation is the same as Imam Hasan (AS) which confirms the veracity of the physical pureness of the Holy Prophet (SA) by which he is known for.

Each of the members of the holy household seeks permission from the Prophet (SA) to enter the Kisaa. It is as if they each know and feel that there is a great significance behind the cloak which the Prophet (SA) has covered himself with. Each one of them rushes to share the honor of attaining proximity to the Seal of Messengers, even if it is simply sharing the same cover.

Imam Husain (AS) specifically greets his grandfather by saying ?? ???? ???????? ????? Oh he whom Allah has chosen! It is not enough that Husain reminds us that the Prophet (SA) is his grandfather, he further tags along that his grandfather is divinely selected. That divine selection to become the Seal of Prophets and Messengers who would deliver the final revelation and message of Islam to mankind is certainly a unique honor that has no similarity.

The wise and knowledgeable recognize that the virtue of a person is derived not by what a person attains from this world by permission of the people, but rather, it is the divine bestowal which earns a person great honor and eternal reverence.

Certainly it was not a coincidence or random selection which Allah (SWT) exercised as He is the absolute Wisdom and the absolute Knowledgeable. The Almighty (SWT) has chosen him because Muhammad (SA) himself has chosen God with every atom of his soul. He came rushing towards his Lord sincerely seeking His proximity and so Allah (SWT) chose Muhammad after he has proved to be the purest person of his time.

The well-known historian Al-Mas'udi in his book Murooj Al Dhahab quotes a lengthy tradition from Imam Ali (AS) to the effect that when Allah (SWT) created, first of all, the Light of Muhammad, He (SWT) said to it: "You are My chosen one and the Trustee of My Light and Guidance. It is because of you that I am going to create the earth and the skies, lay down reward and punishment, and bring into being the Garden and the Fire."

Then the tradition goes on to speak about the family of the Prophet, about creation of the angels, of the souls, of the world, of the covenant taken from the souls which combined the belief in the One God with acceptance of Muhammad's prophethood.

This is why Ibn Abbas narrates that the Prophet Muhammad (SA) said: "I was a Prophet when Adam was between soul and body (i.e. when Adam's creation was in its preliminary stages)" (at-Tabarani, Al-Mu'jjam al-Kabir; Al Khasa'is al-Kubra). The Holy Prophet (SA) also said: "Verily Allah chose Isma'il from the progeny of Ibrahim, and chose Banu Kinanah from the progeny of Isma'il, and chose Quraish from the Banu Kinanah, and chose Banu Hashim from Quraish, and chose me from Banu Hashim." (Tirmidhi)

In fact, it is not only Islam and the Muslims who recognize and appreciate the great status of the Prophet (SA), the non-Muslims also testify to the superiority of Muhammad compared to other creatures. Writing at the time of Carlyle in the nineteenth century, European historian Johann Doellinger asserted: "No other mortal has ever, from the beginning of the world, exercised such an immeasurable influence upon the religious, moral, and political relations of mankind, as has the Arab Muhammad."

Also, historian Will Durant concludes his treatment of Muhammad with this tribute: “If we judge greatness by influence, he was one of the giants of history. He undertook to raise the spiritual and moral level of a people harassed into barbarism by heat and foodless wastes, and he succeeded more completely than any other reformer seldom has any man so fully realized his dream.... When he began, Arabia was a desert flotsam of idolatrous tribes; when he died it was a nation.”

It was on the 27th of Rajab at the age of forty that Prophet Muhammad (SA) was officially appointed by Allah (SWT) as the Seal of Messengers to deliver the message of Islam till the end of time. The commencement of his prophethood began with the revelation of the verses of Surat Al A’laq where Angel Jibrael (AS) recited the first few verses of this chapter: "Read: In the Name of your Lord who created, He created man from a clot. Read: And your Lord is the Most Generous Who taught to write by the pen, Taught man what he knew not".
Imam Husain –Intercessor of The Nation
فَقالَ : وَ عَلَيكَ السَّلامُ يا وَلَدِي وَ يا شافِع أُمَّتِي قَد أَذِنتُ لَكَ
My father replied, "Peace be upon you too, O my son and intercessor of my people. I allow you."
The Holy Prophet (SA) returns back the greetings of his grandson Imam Husain (AS) by stressing that he is his “son” as he did with his brother Hasan. Furthermore, he refers to Husain as يا شافِع أمتي”intercessor of my people”. As we know, the Prophet (SA) himself will have the right of intercession over his nation and this is authentically narrated in both Sunni and Shi’a narrations.
The Qur’an confirms the validity of the concept of Shafa’at (intercession) where the Prophet (SA) can seek forgiveness of others on their behalf, by virtue of his excellence and proximity to Allah (SWT):

“And had they, when they were unjust to themselves, come to you and asked forgiveness of Allah and the Messenger had (also) asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful.” (4:64)

To seek a medium or an intermediate for your affairs is not only logically acceptable but is very practical in our mundane matters. Seeking proximity towards Allah (SWT) via an intermediate is no different and Allah (SWT) approves that in this holy verse,

"O you who believe! Fear Allah and seek an intermediate (Al-Wasilah) unto Him..." (5:35)

Both scholars Raghib Isfahani and 'Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i are of the opinion that Al-Wasilah means to reach a certain goal through desire, inclination or willingness, and in fact wasilah towards God means observance of His path with knowledge and worship through adherence to the Shari'ah. In other words, wasilah is a means of communication and spiritual link between mankind and God.

It is not only Prophet Muhammad (SA) who attains the privilege of intercession, it is also other prophets and messengers as well as divine guides whom Allah (SWT) has preferred over creation due to their piety and excellence. The purified household of the Prophet (SA) also share in the honor of having the liberty to exercise intercession in this life and in the Hereafter. Imam Husain (AS) is notably one of the members of the Prophet’s family who has earned a great status in the eyes of Allah (SWT) and one of the rewards which He (SWT) has bestowed him is the intercession of the Muslim nation.

The story of “Fitrus the angel” clearly demonstrates how Imam Husain (AS) was granted the honor of intercession since he was a baby in his cradle. When Imam Husain (AS) was born, Allah (SWT) sent down the angel Jibrael (AS) to congratulate the family of the Prophet (SA). On the way down from the heavens, Jibrael (AS) passed by an island on which the Fitrus was sent to by Allah (SWT) because he had delayed in executing a command. As a punishment, Fitrus also had his wings taken away by Allah (SWT).

When Fitrus saw Jibrael (AS) he asked him where he was going. Jibrael (AS) told him that he was going to congratulate the Holy Prophet (SA) and his family on the birth of Imam Husain (AS). Fitrus asked if he could join him and Jibrael (AS) agreed with the permission of Allah (SWT) and so carried him down to earth. When the angels reached Prophet Muhammad (SA) and congratulated him and his family, the Prophet (SA) told Fitrus to go to Imam Husain (AS). When Fitrus touched Imam Husain's (AS) cradle, his wings were miraculously given back to him by Allah (SWT) who had forgiven him.

The moral of this story is to demonstrate the permissibility of intercession in general, and specifically for Imam Husain (AS) whose blessings were manifested from the moment he was born. It is interesting to note that angel Fitrus was instructed to seek blessing by rubbing his wing on the cradle of Imam Husain and not Imam Husain himself.

Why was that the case?

It is as if Allah (SWT) intentionally tailored this detailed to demonstrate to us that the object (in this case the cradle) which was associated with a holy and divine personality has attained such honor and sanctity such that it became the manifestation of miracle and blessings. Hence, we should be cognizant of the fact that certain items or physical signs can attain the status of sanctity and we should treat such relics with veneration due to the fact that this relic is associated with the original source of sanctity – in this case, the infallible guide.

If such miracles and blessings are attained by seeking intercession from a holy item, then one can imagine the abundant blessings that one can attain by seeking intercession from a personality who is the original source of sanctity – like Imam Husain (AS).

The divine intermediate is certainly closer to Allah (SWT), so if we wish to secure for ourselves a higher percentage of acceptance or guarantee of our prayers, then logically speaking, we should seek those who are closer to Allah (SWT) who can speak on our behalf and raise our needs.

This is similar to our practice in mundane matters such as getting a recommendation for a job or reaching out to a connection in our network that may accelerate our application process or grant us acceptance of our need by virtue of our close association with the source whom we are targeting.
Imam Ali – Commander of The Faithful
فَقُلتُ : وَعَلَيكَ السَّلامُ يا أَبَا الحَسَن وَيا أَمِيرَ المُؤمِنينَ
"Peace be upon you too, O Abul-Hasan and Commander of the Faithful," I replied.
After Imam Husain (AS), Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) enters and conveys his greetings to the Holy Prophet (SA) who replies back to him by pronouncing the Salam and addressing him as “Abal Hasan” (the father of Hasan) and “Ya Ameer Al Momineen” (Commander of the Faithful). The label of “Ameerul Momineen” exclusively belongs to Imam Ali (AS) and has been divinely bestowed from above the heavens.
In his book Al Kafi, Al Kileeni narrates from Fudail ibn Yassaar that Imam Al Baqir (AS) said: “Oh Fudail, any person who names himself with this title other than Ali is a liar.” According to the Sunni School of thought, Umar ibn Al Khattab was the first to use that title, however that is false information.
In fact, it was the Holy Prophet (SA) who gave Imam Ali (AS) that title and this is cited in many traditions such as, “Oh Ali, you are Ameerul Momineen (Commander of the Faithful) and the Imam of the Muslims, and قائد الغر المحجلين(the Leader of the Resplendent), and يعسوب المتقين (the dragonfly of the pious).” (Amaali)
It is also narrated consecutively by Imam Al Sadiq (AS) that his father Imam Ali (AS) said: “The Prophet (SA) said to me, O Ali You are Ameerul Momineen and the leader of the pious, O Ali you are chief of the successors and heirs of the Prophets and the best of the truthful (sidiqeen).” (Kanz Al Fawaed)
According to the Sunni School of thought as narrated by Al Hafiz Abu Na’eem Al Asfahani in his book Helyat Al Awliyaa, that Qasem ibn Jundub ibn Anas said: The Prophet (SA) said: “Oh Anas, help me prepare for ablution.” Then he got up and prayed two-unit prayer, then he said, “Oh Anas, the first person who will enter from that door is Ameerul Momineen and the Master of the messengers, and قائد الغر المحجلين (the Leader of the Resplendent) and the Seal of Successors.” That person was none other than Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS)!
Hence, it is not appropriate to use that title even to the other Infallible Imams from the sons of Ali, including Imam Hasan who actually became Caliph after his father. That is because attaining the position of Caliphate is not the criteria for being named Ameerul Momineen even though the person may be infallible such as Imam Hasan (AS).

This title is unique only to Ali and no one can share that title with him. The great scholar Ibn Tawoos has actually written a book called Al Yaqeen Bi Ikhtisaas Mawlana Ali Bi Emrat Al Momineen (Faith in the uniqueness of Mawla Al

Share this article

Comments 0

Your comment

Comment description

Latest Post

Most Reviews