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Analysis of the History of Aale Muhammad (P.B.U.H.)

Analysis of the History of Aale Muhammad (P.B.U.H.)

by :

Qadi Bohlool Afandi

By: Ayatullâh Al-Uzma Marashi Najafi (r.a.)

In the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful

After due Praise and Blessings, it should be said that this is one of the most beneficial books. It proves the veracity of Ahle-Bayt (a.s.) and speaks about the injustices inflicted on them. It is simple but sweet in style. Few books can match it on this count. Though it has been printed many times, its demand exceeds supply. Thus Agha Mirza Nasrullah Meherkhwan has decided to publish a fresh edition of this book and requested the humble slave to write a brief introduction, especially about the author. I have complied with his request, albeit briefly, due to my busy schedule.

Biography of the Author

Name and Lineage

Qazi Muhammad is famous by the name of Bohlool Bahjat ?fandi, son of Qadi Muhammad alias 'Sa'dat'. He was the son of Qadi Muhammad Mukhallis, son of Qadi Muhammad, the writer of Bughyatil Faqih, son of Qadi Salâm. The author himself mentions this same lineage, and it reaches up to Abu Ayyub Ansari, the famous companion of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.).

Teachers and Guides

The writer was well versed in rational and traditional sciences as also gnosis (irfan). In the field of Islamic jurisprudence, he was trained by his father Qadi Muhammad Sa'dat and Shaykh Najibuddin Zangizuri. His peers in the rational sciences were Shaykh Muhammad Shaykhul Islam and Shaykh Muhammad Qadizadaj. In gnosis, he preferred Mashrab Mulla Sirajuddin Naqshbandi and followed this Tariqah (school).

He received permission to relate traditions from his father Qadi Muhammad Sa'dat, Sayyid Abul Huda Syadi Rufai, Shaykhul Islam Islambol and related traditions from Sihah Sitta and other books of Prophetic traditions by their permission. This humble servant had the honor of meeting the respected writer a few times and in course of his travel in Iran, he was seen at Tabriz and Hamadan. He was distinguished in numerous qualities and accomplished in many arts. He was very religious. He sought permission from the humble servant to relate ahadith from Shia books, which was duly given. And this humble servant in return got permission to quote from him prophetic traditions.

Religion and School (Tariqat)

Initially, the author was a follower of the Hanafi School. In jurisprudence, he followed Abu Hanifah. At last he gave up the Hanafi School and began to follow the Shafei Maslak, which he continued for the rest of his life. In the matter of Tariqah, he followed the Naqhsbandi School, which terminated at Shaykh Bahauddin Naqshbandi.


The author has penned various works, including the book presently in your hands, Analysis of the History of Aale Muhammad. It can be said that this book was singularly responsible for the popularity of the author. In its impartiality and unbiased reporting, it is incomparable.

His other books are Sharhe Aqaid-e-Nasafi, Hundred Days, Study of Battle of Siffeen, Tract on the teachings of Hamuyi and Hujr bin Adi, The Companion of Amirul Mo-mineen Ali ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) (where his life and martyrdom have been documented). Another work of his is the supplementary on the Tafseer of Baydawi. Kitab Wadud wa Naqood dar Manazirate Mazhabi is yet another of his important work. He wrote tracts wherein he has collected the names of Ahle Sunnat scholars who have recorded the incident of arson at the door of Fatemah Zahra (s.a.). This book was written at the request of this humble servant (Agha Mar'ashi)( r.a.)

A tract on the Naqshbandi Order, A tract on the necessity of Wiping (Masah) of feet, A tract on the monuments of Azerbaijan, A tract on the punctuation of the Confession of the Oneness of God (Kalemtut Tauheed), a book on the exposition of democracy, socialism and other schools. The writer was from Zangizur. He visited Islambol (Istanbul) a few times, and visited Egypt, Baghdad, Iran and Bukhara once each. He had the grace to perform Hajj once. He was good-natured, honest, brave, humorous and broad faced. He was a handsome personality with a sweet tongue and corpulence. He was born in 1288 A.H. in the city of Zangizur. According to authentic sources, he passed away in 1350 A.H. However some people maintain that he was murdered. He has left three sons and a daughter named, Bahauddin, Abdullah, Ali Jamaluddin and Fatemah. I pray to the Almighty for the tawfeeq for the righteous and those who propagate the faith.

Shahaabuddin Al Husaini al Najafi Al Marashi

11th Jamadi al-Oola, 1362



By the Grace of the Almighty and under the shade of the attention and guidance of the universal wisdom, the guide of the path, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), we begin the book TASHREEH WA MUHAAKAMAH DAR TAAREEKH-E-AALE MUHAMMAD [Analysis of the History of Aale Muhammad (s.a.w.s.)]. With all humility, the author hopes this book will be considered as the foremost among such works.

It is well known that love and affection for the family of the infallibles and pure ones (Ahle Bayt (a.s.)) is incumbent on the Muslim Ummah. Hence, it is our most important duty to know the conditions and the history of events connected with this pious household (a.s.).

It is highly regrettable that, until now, what is going on is quite the opposite. That is, the Islamic scholars, who have compiled huge tomes on various subjects, have made no contribution to the history of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) whose love and affection is the basic and important condition for true faith. For instance, many works have been published on the history of Samanids, Seljuks, Buwayhids, Ottomans, etc. but we have no book on the history of the Aale Muhammad (s.a.w.s.). Is this not a matter of shame and regret?

The Muslim scholars have not paid more attention to any science other than history and the transmission of events. The works of Ibne Khaldun, Ibne Athir, Ibne Khallekaan, Masoodi and other well-known scholars are the best examples of the science of narration and history.

The best examples of the extraordinary importance given by Muslim scholars to such narration and history are History of Damascus by Ibne Asaakir in fifty volumes and History of Baghdad by Khateeb-e-Bagdadi in eighty volumes. In the field of narration too, we have works like Osodul Ghaabah. Also, some of the valuable works have been side tracked despite their importance. In spite of all these works of great importance what is regrettable is that the history of the Holy Prophet's (s.a.w.a.) progeny has not received any serious attention. Historians have not paid as much attention to Imam Reza (a.s.) as they have given to Mutanabbi (a false prophet). It has paid more regard to Abu Yusuf than to Imam Moosa Kazim (a.s.).

If prejudice is set aside and the matter is looked into impartially, what will appear is quite the opposite. If somebody claims otherwise, the pages of history would readily support the truth.

It is very regretful that a well-known historian like Tabari, in his famous Tarikh, does not given importance to some really important events and regards them as unworthy of mention. He does not utter even a few words in favour of the established rights of the Holy Progeny of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) but discusses worthless things like Nimrud riding a vulture, which raises him, high towards the sky! He lifts the head of Awj bin Unaaq right into the clouds! Wonderful! What was the wisdom behind all this neglect and indulgence? Astonishing! Did it not occur to Tabari that his works would be critically evaluated in future? It is the duty of every impartial historian to make thorough investigation in every matter even if it is minor, because those preceding try their best to enlighten the minds of the coming generations. They do not want to leave them groping in the darkness of superstitions, confused! While facts related to Islam and Muslims remained concealed and unknown to the Muslim world, those, which were vain and had nothing to do with the world of Islam, have been discussed at length. The fact that the position of the Holy Progeny of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has a very high rank is as bright as the sun and nobody is unaware of it.

We have said earlier that love and affection for the Holy Progeny (a.s.) is among the most important duties of a Muslim. It is indeed astonishing as to why a proportionate study has not been made in this significant matter? In my humble opinion, this subject does deserve a detailed study.

It is a clear and established fact that in the early period of Islam, Khilafah from the time it got deviated from its original and natural course, the rights of the Holy Progeny of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) have been suppressed and trampled upon. The period of caliphs did not last long but the duration was enough to change the course of history for the worse. The oppressive and hated regime, and sinister and usurper rule of Bani Umaiyyah came into power. People lacking wisdom and Islamic behaviour, gathered around the oppressive and cunning Moaviyah. Reality was suppressed under pressure of deceit, threat, oppression and punishment.

White turned into black and black into white. Hypocrisy flourished and truth vanished. What is more regrettable is that the Companions (of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)), while witnessing a whole series of events, due to absolute cowardice and timidity to testify against the same, did not display the requisite courage to fulfil the duty entrusted to them. The pits were that some companions even rose up openly and followed the path of falsehood and innovation, and dived into the depths of abominable deeds and hateful acts! Let me state a little more explicitly. Abu Hurayrah, who was a permanent companion of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and has narrated hundreds of thousands of hadiths and events from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), in order to safeguard his honour and respect, was just a mute spectator in front of the oppressions and tyranny of Bani Umayyah. So much so that he did not feel an iota of shame to dine on the table of Mu'awiyah, the evil oppressor, whose innumerable cruelties and savageries can astonish the reader? (The details, of course, will deviate us from our aim). But Abu Hurayrah supported him shamelessly, devouring royal delicacies. He is reported to have said, "Prayer behind Ali is most perfect but the table of Mu'awiyah is more colourful."

Despite his confession that prayer behind Ali (a.s.) is better, the tasteful food of Syria supplied by Mu'awiyah lured him and he disregarded the best of prayers. Thus, meanness and voracity made him accept abjectness and drove him to give licence to the deeds of the oppressors and cruel tyrants.

The notorious enemy of the Holy Progeny (a.s.), Basar bin Artaat, who had stormed, massacred and plundered Medina on behalf of Mu'awiyah. He was known in history by the name of the Perpetrator of the Night of Hurra, wherein he killed seven hundred companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and dishonoured nearly three hundred women. In this entire sorry episode, Abu Hurayrah had been his assistant and even his deputy! How lowly and mean can a creature become! What is regrettable is that despite this wickedness, Abu Hurayrah is remembered in history with reverence! Only being a narrator of traditions makes him honourable and respectable!

In the humble view of the author, after gaining the honour of being the Prophet's (s.a.w.a.) companion, Abu Hurayrah's friendship with the likes of Mu'awiyah, Marwan and Basar bin Artaat is the proof of his apostasy, the decay of his intent, the hypocrisy behind his deeds and the deception in his righteousness. Moreover, Mughairah bin Shu'bah, a famous companion, who supervised all these evils, crimes and innovations, gained terrible notoriety and infamy in the world of Islam!

In order to serve the lust and greed of Mu'awiyah and to please his commanding desires, he continuously abused the Holy Progeny of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) (we seek refuge in Allah). He cursed Ali (as), in particular, publicly from the pulpit. The description of such heartrending events here is not intended to narrate history but to confirm that in those days, discussion of the excellence and virtues of the Holy Progeny (a.s.) was extremely difficult.

Yes, in the time of the rule of Bani Umayyah, there was no trace of truth and truthfulness. Therefore, facts remained concealed behind the veil of intrigue. The era of Bani Umayyah ended as a result of the great and earnest self- sacrifices of the blessed nation, and through the revolution of Abu Muslim Khurasani. Consequently, the Bani Abbas came to power. During the regime of this autocratic and tyrannical dynasty too, the Holy Progeny of Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was deprived of its rights. Just as Bani Abbas attained caliphate through the nations grand sacrifices, the Holy Progeny, as was its condition during the treacherous rule of Bani Umayyah, continued to remain in the clutches of strangulation and negation. It became forlorn and distanced with the deceit and intrigues of the native and each one of them was either poisoned or killed. Verily, this era also was turned into a time of calamities.

Any sympathy for the holy family (a.s.) in itself was extremely risky. Rather nobody dared even the mention their names. The scholars, traditionalists and jurists, who belonged to the Holy Progeny (a.s.) were pushed aside. They were intentionally kept away from the people. Self-interest and greed made people to align with those in power. They alienated Baqir, Kazim, Reza-e- Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) from the nation through perfidy and oppression under the pretext that the progeny of Fatima (a.s.) was desirous of caliphate. So they drove them away one by one from public arena.

If a deep insight is made in the history of the lives of the Holy Progeny, it will be known that all of these precious personalities were either made captive or were made to drink the nectar of martyrdom at the merciless and ruthless hands of the treacherous rulers.

It will be understood from the above that during the rule of Bani Abbas, conditions were not favourable for the Holy Progeny and it was difficult to talk about their rights.

After the attack of Genghis Khan on the Islamic world, an era of feudal rule began. This era, which began in the seventh century Hijri, though did not last long, to some extent, was favourable for freedom of expression. The scholars born in this period were, compared to their predecessors, away from blind following and nearer to research and scrutiny. Among the scholars who came up in this era were Khaandmir, Mirkhaan, and the author of the book 'Rawzatus Safaa' wherefrom the book 'Rawzatul Ahbaab' was translated. Again after this period, conditions turned for the worse. Old politics returned and undue prejudice became the order of the day. Truth and reality again went into concealment. Yes, a kingdom opposed to the Ottoman was founded.

The expansion of the circle of this epoch was quite essential. The outward (zahiri) caliphate too shifted to Sultan Salim-I, who was a very competent king. He also made efforts to unite the Muslim countries but, unfortunately, an aim that should have been pursued with logic, was instead sought through force. What a pity that this high and popular view was not followed through proper and natural channels. History has proved, time and again that the structures based on force and false foundations do not yield good results.

Against this great conqueror, rose another contender who longed to capture the whole world. Shah Ismail Safavi, for fulfilling his desire of conquering the world, resorted to some means and ways. To achieve his selfish aim and motive, he used religion to the hilt. Yes, two kings, with a view to expand their territories and strengthen their influence, created a world of a difference (in religious matters) in the nation. Both the parties, following their desires besides wielding the sword, also used the pen. They wrote books explaining their aims and objects and penned their views unceasingly. Can you imagine the extent to which the truth was concealed? How much falsehood concocted? How much of the white has been turned into black and vice versa, which were later converted to acceptable facts? A group of scholars sacrificed their conscience and intelligence for self-interests at the altar of the rulers and influential people. Selfishness and prejudice ruled the roost and consequently, thousands of books were left as heritage for us! Yes, swords were silenced but blood still drips from the body of Islam because of the wounds inflicted by the pen!

Yes, we deeply desire that this wound should be healed through expert medical treatment with pens and self-sacrificing deeds of Islamic scholars. You know that this era also is not congenial for the upliftment and spread of truth. A book has been written about Karbala. Though the intention of the author is to exhibit the heart-rending event he has under cover of the description of the calamities, been partial toward the filthy Yazid and his obstinate companions and says at the end,

"On the day of Qiyamat, Hazrat Fatima Zahra (s.a.) will arrive in the field of Mahshar with the blood-stained shirt of her son and will complain about the oppression to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) will say, "O my daughter! This day is not the day for making complaints. This is the day for intercession." So, all the offenders will be forgiven and admitted to Paradise!" Now, see how the writer of the tragedy while describing the calamities, wants to defend Shimr, Yazid, Umar Sa'ad, Ubaidullah ibne Ziyaad and their cahoots. How he provides the means of their pardon and permits their entry to Paradise! But this shameless fellow, does not, even for a moment, ponder how can the merciless killer of the son of the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the dearest offspring of Lady Fatima (s.a.) in the desert of Karbala be forgiven at all? They are unpardonable because the cursed ones had turned deniers and a denier's permanent abode is hell. So much so that even those who were delighted or satisfied with what happened at Karbala are in the hell-fire too.

Yes, what we want to establish is that the history of the Holy Progeny has not been written truthfully. If there are books on this subject, most are based on selfishness and malafide intention. Thus the history of the Holy Progeny has remained under cover of prejudice and selfishness.

We want that this problem should be studied more deeply. Just see as to what extent the politics of establishing a state in Islam has created harmful functions and executed them? Here are some examples from Bani Umayyah: Once when, in the time of Bani Umayyah, Abdullah Ibn Zubair claimed caliphate in Mecca and confronted Abdul Malik Marwan, and fought for few years, Abdul Malik, merely with an intention that the people of Syria and all Muslim countries should stop visiting K'abaa, built a mansion and called upon people to visit that house for performance of Hajj! Imagine the extent the question of kingdom and rule has, through this route, harmed religion, that a cursed fellow, for securing his own kingdom, changes the holy Kaaba, among the greatest pillars of Islam!

Here is another example from Bani Abbas:

When the people of Medina refused to recognize the caliphate of Ja'far Mansoor Abbasi and paid allegiance to a man from the family of Zahra whose name was Muhammad bin Abdullah and they battled several times with Ja'far Mansoor. On the one hand, he fought with Muhammad bin Abdullah, and on the other, with an intention of turning away the Muslims from the holy shrine of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and from the holy city of Mecca, built a house and named it "Qubba-e-Khazraa" (Green Tomb) and invited people to visit that place instead of visiting Mecca for Hajj.

Now, an Abbasi Caliph, like the ruler of Bani Umayyah, for safeguarding his government, massacred even the progeny of Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) and executed them and distorted quite a few Islamic rules and regulations.

Another example:

The caliphs of Bani Abbas not only did not popularise the respect for the Holy Progeny but, instead, gave rewards to poets to libel the pure and pious progeny. There are thousands of proofs substantiating this claim but we suffice here with only one:

A poet named Abaan bin Abdil Hameed wanted to earn a prize from Haroon Rashid. In order to gain access to his court, he approached Yahya Barmaki. Yahya told him, 'The condition to attend the court and gain access to the caliph is to curse Ali (a.s.) and his sons. Initially Abaan was reluctant to commit this abominable deed but later, wilting under the pressure of Yahya, composed a poem cursing Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and presented it to Haroon. Haroon rewarded Abaan by appointing him as one of his councillors!

The aim of these statements is to show that during the days of Bani Umayyah and Bani Abbas, the life and condition of the Holy Progeny was in a great danger. This noble race was pushed aside and having been cut off from the entire ummah, they were passing their days in social isolation. Not only that it was not possible to show any sympathy toward the Holy Progeny's condition but even taking their name was regarded as a great offence and disloyalty.

One of the errors and negligence of the historians was that they followed the idiom "to find fault in the great ones is a fault" to the hilt. They almost seemed bewitched and enchanted. They not only refused to condemn one of the many Muslim oppressors who passed in the history of Islam nor did they ever criticise them, rather, they listed their names among the truthful ones. They regarded the deadly poison that had permeated into the body of the ummah, as a useful and effective tonic. They named most of the criminals as reformers and benefactors, thereby beguiling the innocent ummah.

Of course, the problem later turned into a deadly disease and an incurable wound for Islam, whose sufferings continue unabated.

We are obliged to give here some examples for further clarification. Take a glance at Tarikh-e-Tabari, which claims maximum importance among other history books because of its antiquity and being replete with quotations. You will see that many tyrants have been mentioned therein as truthful. This history showers great appreciation for people like Abu Hurayrah and Mughirah bin Shu'bah. Tabari has never taken the trouble to critically evaluate the deeds of these characters. For him, their company with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was sufficient to accord them honour and reverence. This attitude, in my humble opinion, is a big mistake and a serious error.

How is it possible that sheer company of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) prevents a historian from a critical dissection of a person? On the contrary, being a companion of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) must make the punishment of their mistakes all the more severe.

You can see what Allah the Almighty, in the verses relating to the wives of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), says, "O wives of the Messenger! You are not like all other women. If any one of you commits a sin her punishment will be doubled." (Ahzaab: 30) Hence reward and punishment is proportionate to one's status. It is incumbent for everyone to follow the good deeds of the Prophet's companions and also to avoid praising those who committed wrongs. Such people should be criticised instead.

It is true that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said, "Do not malign my companions". But, then, criticism of erroneous and evil deeds is not slander. Not only the companions, is slander not permitted of anybody. If criticism is called defamation then the criticism or looking into the deeds of any of the evildoers is also disallowed. Such a belief is totally wrong and what is correct is that the deeds of every person without discrimination, is worth praise and/or censuring.

Abu Hurayrah might have been worthy of God's Grace because of his being one of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). But thereafter he became a puppet of Mu'awiyah and, worse than that of Basr bin Artaat. We shall condemn him because of this very fact and due to his misdeeds afterwards! If one looks at the reward of one's good deeds one should also think of the punishment of his evil deeds and mischief. We do not deny that Abu Hurayrah was one of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his servant and also a narrator of many traditions. But then, do you know, apart from this, what Abu Hurayrah has done? If no, then ask me.

When Mu'awiyah intended to obtain allegiance for his son Yazid, the people of Medina objected to this criminal innovation and intended to oppose that evil move. Mu'awiyah, in order to frighten the gentle citizens of Medina, sent the harshest and heartless beast Basr bin Artat to Medina to get the said allegiance. Then, on Mu'awiyah's orders, Basr killed seven hundred persons and also arrested three hundred honourable and chaste Muslim women and engaged himself for three consecutive days, in allowing the Syrian robbers plunder and ravage the residents around the Prophet's (s.a.w.a.) shrine!

At that time, Abu Hurayrah, this very companion of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), was a helper and accomplice, in all of his cruel and oppressive misdeeds! Now, we cannot overlook this crime because, otherwise, we will also be considered as selfish destroyers of truth. Yes, it is due to this cruelty that we will always condemn Abu Hurayrah.

Another historical fact that needs to be pondered upon. It is clearly known that Ziyad, on behalf of Mu'awiyah, killed one by one all the partisans of the Holy Progeny of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). At that time, he sent Hujr bin Adi, who was a famous companion of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), with his friends to Mu'awiyah. There Hujr and others of his like, as a result of the plots of Abu Hurayrah and his ilk, who had sold their religion for gold coins (dinars), were martyred on the charge of being in favour of the Holy Progeny. In this crime, Abu Hurayrah was with Mu'awiyah and so also in every cruelty that was meted out to the holy family. Therefore, we will never close our eyes from the crimes of Abu Hurayrah even though all historians have ignored these crimes only on account of his being a companion of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).

Now let us consider some other blunders of Tabari and the rest of historians. It cannot be imagined that there is anyone who does not know that Mughairah bin Shu'bah, who also was an accomplice of Mu'awiyah in all his crimes, was always maligning Ali (a.s.) from the pulpits of the mosques and was using bad words for the Holy Progeny too. Yes, many historians have not taken into account the evils of Mughairah bin Shu'bah and they take his name with respect only because he kept company with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) for some time!

His being in the circle of the companions is praiseworthy but what about his being in favour of Mu'awiyah and Yazid and his becoming the cause of the coming to power of a snake like Yazid, who fanned a fire which will not cool till the Day of Judgement? This sin is so serious that it is not at all pardonable and we can never ignore it. While we agree that he was a companion of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), we will openly condemn his evils and atrocities during our discussion.

Here, let us elaborate how the historians have erred. It is common knowledge that the battle of Jamal was a serious tragedy in the history of Islam and that it was the first blow to the unity of Muslim ummah. History records this battle in detail. It even separates truth from untruth. Why the condemners of this tragedy narrated it in a particular way is not a secret, to some extent. The only regret is that the historians have attempted to describe this event in such a way that truth and untruth and the identities of the oppressor and the oppressed are ambiguous, and most of the facts remain hidden. They have, through stupid excuses and baseless pretexts, concealed the truth both in ignorance and intentionally. Alas! Alas! They have forgotten the ultimate aim of chronicling history, curtailed its importance and also delivered a deadly blow to this respectable science.

In our opinion, the cause of this covering up is 'companionship'. True, the perpetrators of the battle of Jamal were among the companions, rather the closest companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Simply because they were companions, historians did not take into account their serious misdeeds and the harm they caused to the world of Islam. They did not display the courage of discriminating truth and falsehood. They did not like to express their opinion in this matter. They thought they were doing Islam good turn by resorting to unfair forgiveness and unreasonable overlooking.

But we say that the duty of a historian is to reveal the root and the truth of the facts to the public so that the succeeding generations may not remain helpless in identifying truth from falsehood. Pardon and forgiveness is related to the Lord of the Day of Reckoning on the Day of Judgement. To forgive and pardon is not the duty of the historian.

It is absolutely clear that the ummah has, against the wish of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), disintegrated into different branches and the cause of this dissipation has been the said silence in telling the truth and the nonchalance in adjudication. It is known to all as to how much the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has prohibited the ummah from disunity.

Let us come somewhat closer to reality.

In days gone by, the policies whereof we still continue to follow, might was right. In the era of Bani Umayyah, and Bani Abbas, writers, poets, and even religious scholars had entered the assemblies and courts of the notorious caliphs. They have praised loudly their pomp and glory and luxury in magical words and songs. Not a single fellow has ever condemned such gatherings of evil and sin. They only earned thousands of gold coins and engaged themselves in luxury. All this pleasure was before the eyes of the people and needs no explanation. Though rule and power do not justify anybody's evil deeds in the eyes of the just, Mu'awiyah bin Abu Sufyan and Harqoos bin Zuhair should have ranked equal but the power and kingdom of Mu'awiyah placed him prominently in the line of caliph and Amirul Momineen making him look honourable! The unlucky Harqoos, because of being powerless, was condemned and maligned! Had he possessed power, his oppressions also would have been covered. To be more explicit,

Harqoos bin Zuhair was one of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and also one of the Ashaabe Badr (who had fought at Badr) and other Islamic battles and displayed enough courage too. But fortune did not favour him and he became a criminal by forsaking Ali (a.s.) in the tragedy of Siffin. He fought in the battle of Nahrawan and became one of the Khawarij. Now all the historians have mentioned Harqoos with contempt and condemnation and no one has taken into account his companionship with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) because he rebelled against the rightful Imam and, after fighting for one day against him, was killed. But Mu'awiyah, whose atrocities put Islam to various calamities, who made many innovations, who had abused the Holy Progeny of Prophet (s.a.w.a.), who went up the pulpit of the Prophet's mosque and abused Ali (a.s.) and his holy sons before many companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), who turned an Islamic State on the pattern of Caesar and Chosroes,

and who killed great companions of the Prophet (s.a.) like Ammar Yasir and Owais Qarni, has been converted into a reverend and honourable figure! We can say that even if we overlook all of his misdeeds and discuss only the killing of Hujr bin Adi, we will find no reason at all for not considering Mu'awiyah as a mischief maker, oppressor, rebel and condemnable! Alas! Despite all these innumerable cruelties Mu'awiyah has been given the title of Amirul Mu'minin and all of his evils have been put behind the veil of forgetfulness. Not only this, his misdeeds and offences too have been regarded as his Ijtihaad. It has been mentioned that in his own Ijtihaad (thinking), despite being in error, he has earned a prize or reward (sawaab)! I say down with such a Mujtahid, 1 who martyred the Prophet's favourite son Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.) and made this misdeed an object of Ijtihaad! The whole world should condemn such a Mujtahid, who hoisted a dishonest man like Yazid on the head of the pitiable Muslim Ummah and then rejoiced at it!

Umar an-Nasafi in his book Aqaaid an-Nasafi says that the battles and all other acts of Mu'awiyah were based on Ijtihaad! If someone asks why the deeds of Harqoos bin Zuhair also should not be considered as Ijtihaad? What will be his reply? Astonishing indeed! In the humble view of the writer, Harqoos neither possessed dirham and dinaar nor a bloodthirsty sword so as to get the power of 'Ijtihaad'. It is a popular saying that 'a king can do no wrong'.

It is a fact that the pomp and power of Bani Umayyah has covered all the misdeeds of Mu'awiyah. The ulamah and the historians have not dared to discuss and criticise his cruelties and oppressive acts and all the rules and policies of that era became a continuing style of law.

Here the aim of all this detail is to show that the historians have, in most of the affairs and events, kept mum without expressing what is right and therefore, the history of the Progeny of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has also remained behind the curtain of secrecy and it has not been revealed as it deserved to be. In order to substantiate this claim we find it necessary to mention some historical examples. A scholar named Yaqub bin Sikkit was sitting in the court of Mutawakkil, the Abbasi emperor, when two sons of the caliph viz. Motamad and Motaz entered the assembly. At that moment the caliph asked Yaqub, "Who are more graceful, these two children of mine or Hasan and Husain (the sons of Ali)?" Yaqub, due to the faith in his heart, retorted, "By God! Even Qambar, who was a servant of Ali, is more graceful than these two sons of yours!" Hearing this blunt reply, Mutawakkil ordered the executioner to pull out the tongue of the scholar!

A Mujtahid is he who makes effort to find the decision or verdict of religion. Please analyse for yourselves. In such times and circumstances, was it at all possible to discuss the Holy Progeny? The sun of the truth remained hidden behind the clouds of cruelty and tyranny.

Let us cite another example of Mutawakkil's era.

After the tragic event of Karbala, Muslims used to visit the holy grave of Hazrat Imam Husain (a.s.). With the passing of time, the respect for the holy tomb increased and a big mausoleum was built there. When Mutawakkil learnt of this, he ordered its demolition, considering it incompatible with the Muslim ummah and the group that loved the Holy Progeny!

Now, just ponder. All important affairs of Islam are in the control of the caliph. When he indulges in such gestures, what should the people do? In those days, the Mutazela were on a high. Among caliphs, Mamoon and Mutasim favoured them. As soon as Mutawakkil came to power, he dissuaded the people from accepting the creed of Etezaal. He became a favourite of the Sunnah and was also embellished with the title of "Muhyi al-Sunnah" (Reviver of the Sunnah)! Kindly try to understand what types of anti-religious, unjust and despicable deeds, this establisher of the Sunnah does. Does an establisher of the Sunnah demolishes the holy shrine of Imam Husain (a.s.) and turns it into rubble? Can a just caliph commit such atrocities merely on a doubt that someone is opposed to his political ambitions and against his personal worldly interests? Thus it has become clear that in that time facts and truth too had remained behind tall obstructions. How strange! How did the caliphs and amirs of Muslims and the judges of the courts tumble in such a deep abyss?

For proving our point we felt it necessary to present some historical evidences so that it may be known that the history of the Progeny of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has been neglected to a great extent. So much so that even in the early days of Islam, their rights were not appreciated with honour. Rather, they were treated worse than second class citizens. Everyone knows that the third caliph expired; all the companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) insisted for the caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and accepted him as a popular caliph.

Finally, they all paid allegiance to him heartily. Great companions led by Talha and Zubair along with the people of Hijaz came to Hazrat Amirul Mu'minin Ali (a.s.) to pay perfect allegiance to him and to thank him for accepting their popular demand. These things did not take place secretly but in the presence of all the great companions and respectable believers. And shortly thereafter, the tragic event of the battle of Jamal happened. Talha and Zubair, who were considered among the ten 'Ashara-e-Mubas hsharah' 2, ran after the desire to obtain caliphate, broke their oath of allegiance and duped the people of Basra saying that they were forced to pay allegiance to Ali (a.s.). My only intention by mentioning this is to point out that the people of Basra, in order to verify the accusation of Talha and Zubair that they were forced to give allegiance to Ali The ten companions, who were informed of their place in Paradise by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). (a.s.), sent a man to Medina. After a journey of some weeks, the testifier arrived in the holy city of Medina. By chance, it was a Friday and people had assembled in the mosque of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) for Friday prayers. That companion got up and addressed the gathering:

O companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)! O the people of Badr and Rizwan, O faithful people! Talha and Zubair are saying in Basra that, "We gave allegiance to Ali (a.s.) under pressure" The people of Basra have sent me to you to clarify the matter from you as you were present at that time. Was the allegiance to Ali (a.s.) obtained perforce or the people had given it voluntarily and happily?" In response to this question, the entire audience kept mum and none considered himself worthy of speaking the truth. Finally Usamah bin Zaid got up and said, "Talha and Zubair had given the allegiance to Ali under threats of Malik Ashtar!"

Astonishing indeed! What a state of affairs is this? What compelled Usamah to act in this manner? What made him consider that such a degree of opposition to Ali (a.s.) was proper? Why did the Companions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) conceal such an obvious thing? Why did they sow the seeds of hypocrisy and disunity among the pitiable ummah?

Let us assume that Ali (a.s.) was neither the son-in-law of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) nor was he the husband of Fatima Zahra (s.a.), but that he was only an ordinary Muslim. Even then, does not a faithful Muslim have any right on another Muslim? This incident makes it known to what extent the rights of the Holy Progeny were being trampled upon. No more proof is required to substantiate this fact. This incident itself shows the state of affairs.

The examples and events so far mentioned show that in the early days of Islam, ulamah have, as a result of some historical events, not given even the slightest importance to the history of the Holy Prophet's progeny (s.a.w.a.). Sufficient discussion of the lives of the members of the Holy Progeny has never been undertaken.

Thus the claim of this humble creature has been proved.

By the Grace of the Lord Almighty, I have tried to research the history of the Holy Progeny in this book. I hope I will be able to narrate properly the events relating to the history and lives of the members of the Holy Progeny and to state with accuracy going deep into the matter. Maybe I can show how much oppression has been caused by the nation to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and how many rights of his Holy Progeny have been destroyed. While writing this book, I have kept prejudice and blind following away. My only aim is to reveal the truth and the facts.

It is already known to the pitiable ummah that the Muslim community has now been divided in two important groups: Shia and Sunni. The Shia has concern for the history of the Holy Progeny but the Sunnis have gone toward tafreet (excessiveness). Now when nothing except this difference and disunity is visible, this humble creature has stood up between the two dear and honourable brothers. I extend my hand toward both. I call upon them to come to a point of concurrence and unity, so that they may understand that there is no point of dispute between the two brothers. And that if our unity is an obligation, then they should never fall in dispute only concerning the Holy Progeny. Since the poor ummah has differed in the matter of the Holy Progeny, it is also imperative that the same Holy Progeny should be the point of unity. I hope the Muslim brotherhood will study this history, leaving aside blind following and prejudice and excessiveness with spiritual delight and will understand the truth and fact and may Allah help us.

Now we shall begin the history of Aale Muhammad in a systematic manner. By Aale Mohammad (Peace be upon him and his progeny), we mean Hazrat Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.), the blessed daughter of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)- Fatima Zahra (s.a.) and her two dear sons (a.s.). All of them comprising the people of the cloak - and also the twelve Imams (a.s.) were from this family.

The life history of these personalities, their usurped rights and the difficulties befalling them would be discussed, analyzed and judged. Therefore, we shall begin our discussion with Amirul Momineen (a.s.), the first member of this family.

As the Lord Almighty created man, He also guided them to the right path through a guide from among themselves. All of these divine guides in their respective periods were the bearers of authority and dispensers of divine law among the people. Among these great messengers (a.s.) some were higher than others, and some of them reached the status of Ulul Azm. The best of these messengers was the seal of the Prophets, Muhammad (s.a.w.a.). Also, according to common belief, reaching to the level of certainty, Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) was the most respected and superior personality in the eyes of the Holy Prophet (s.a.). None held this position. This discussion, which is Sharii and religious, is related to Islamic laws. Islamic law has some general principles for all issues, which cannot be denied. Once these are promulgated and applied, both the plaintiff and the dependant are obliged to respect it.

In Islam, the followers of different sects follow different variations of the law but the general principles are non-changeable. Among these principles, is the following: Whosoever desires to prove something according to Islam law has to support his arguments with proofs and evidences? No claim can be presented without proof and evidence.

In Islamic Shariah, two types of proofs are valid: Rational (Aqli) and Traditional or Documentary (Naqli). The difference between the two is that if there is no documentary evidence for a particular thing, it cannot be proved with rational arguments alone. But if a particular thing is proved by texts there is no need to justify it rationally. In order to prove that Ali (a.s.) was the foremost and the most superior of all the people of the Muslim Ummah, we are obliged to present both forms of evidences, rational as well as traditional. Here we shall relate the rational arguments and then present the traditional proofs in short.

Yes! Human wisdom is a witness that there are two important concepts in the Universe, Existence and non-Existence. Indeed, wisdom is a witness for the superiority and virtue of existence and not for non-existence. Existence also is of two types, proper and common. Certainly, wisdom will always give preference to a specific command. Specific command is again of two kinds, perceptive and non-perceptive. Now, wisdom is aware that perceptive is superior to non- perceptive. Perceptive is again of two kinds, intellectual and non-intellectual. Intellectual is indeed the superior-most. Intellectual is further divided into two types, knowledgeable and non-knowledgeable. Certainly, wisdom considers knowledgeable to be superior-most.

After this introduction of intellect and its kinds we would like to state that after the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Ali (a.s.) was the most knowledgeable personality. There was none his equal among all the people. In this way, Hazrat Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was the most superior person in the Ummah.

One of the proofs of superiority is knowledge, which was present in the personality of Ali (a.s.). Now let us discuss the other causes and signs of superiority because superiority is a quality that is established by its signs and causes. All these causes and signs are present in the person himself. They are not superior to him in isolation. The foremost quality is righteousness. Yes! Wisdom dictates that righteousness is superior to injustice. Another quality is bravery. Certainly good character is its primary advantage. According to wisdom, it is the most superior quality. Thus, everyone will agree that there was no person equal to Ali (a.s.) as regards bravery and a lofty character in his time. Therefore, he was the most superior person. He was the most deserving one according to wisdom. No doubt about it!

This was in brief, our rational argument to prove the superiority of Ali (a.s.). Let us now prove it from traditional point of view. The first category of textual proofs is the Holy Quran, and the second the sayings of the holy Prophet (s.a.). There is no doubt concerning the validity of these two proofs. As far as the sayings of the Prophet (s.a.) are concerned, if their authenticity is established, the Muslims consider them at par with the verses of the Holy Quran.

The only problem regarding traditions is that some of them are authentic and some are not. Even though hundreds of important writings and thousands of books have been written to interpret and study the traditions we still find a large number of forged sayings among the books of traditions. Some of them have created untold controversies and problems among the Muslim nation. There is a marked difference between the methods of Shia and Sunni scholars in evaluating the authenticity of a hadith. Shias generally believe that it is necessary for a reporter of hadith to be just (aadil). But according to the majority of Ahle Sunnat, all the companions were just and thus all the traditions reported by them are authentic and reliable. However, according to Shia scholars, all the companions were not just that traditions reported by them couldn't be accepted without scrutiny.

Yes! Even though the differences are minute, they are very important because the traditions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.) have reached us only through the companions. Hence the justice of companions is an important criterion for the correctness of the narrations.

The humble writer of this book was a common Sunni scholar. In spite of this he always maintained that all the companions of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) were not just.

This can be illustrated as follows:

The Ahle Sunnat accept the narrations of the companion Mughirah bin Shu'bah and also consider him to be just. But it should be known that justice has no existence outside a person. It is apparent through the actions of that person. But if someone opposes the established commands of Islam, whoever it may be, far from his being just, he would be labeled a sinner and unjust person. This is established through the opinions of well-known Ahle Sunnat scholars. Please note the factors that show whether Mughirah was a sinner or a just person.

History chronicles that Mughirah was the governor of Basrah during the Caliphate of second caliph. In this period, he committed fornication with a woman named Umme Jamil of the Bani Aamir tribe. Four companions witnessed this act. One was Abu Bakr and others were Nafe, Shabil and Ziyad. In the beginning three of them testified. The fourth one gave a false testimony and thus saved him from the punishment of stoning.

It is clear that Mughirah had committed fornication and became eligible for a verdict of stoning from the Caliph. The complete incident is recorded in various history books, especially the book, Fitratul Islam. Ibne Abil Hadeed has also considered as insufficient the testimony of people who committed greater sins and did not consider their hadith reliable.

Mughirah was the ruler of Kufa when he saw Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and (God forbid) uttered a curse on him. So much so that the writer of Fitratul Islam and Ibne Abil Hadeed, the Shafei scholar, says that Mughirah bin Shu'bah cursed Ali (a.s.) and his pure descendants in the presence of Saeed bin Zaid, the great companion. Many other companions who left the Masjid in disgust also witnessed this.

Another book that has recorded these misdeeds is Aghani of Abul Faraj Isfahani. Ibne Abil Hadeed in Sharh-o-Nahjil Balagha has also mentioned this through a chain of narrators. Moreover, the writers of Fitratul Islam records under the discussion of the martyrdom of Hujr bin Adi. Appointed by Amir Mu'awiyah, Mughirah bin Shu'bah the ruler of Kufa was always imprecating Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and his pure descendants. One day while he was committing this vile act, Hujr bin Adi stood up and hit the head of Mughirah with a stone. This incident became the very cause of Mu'awiyah's oppression of Hujr that ultimately led to his martyrdom.

From the above narration, it becomes clear that Mughirah cursed Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.) even though the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had said, "One who curses Ali, curses me and one, who curses me, curses Allah." Hence, Shahabuddin Alusi writes in his Tafseer, "Anyone, who curses Ali bin Abi Talib, whether in his life or after he passed away, would be an infidel." Thus in the book Hayatul Haiwan, Allamah Damiri and in Yanabiul Mawaddah of Khwaja Kalaan Qunduzi have also established this fact. Thus, it is confirmed that by committing this deed, Mughirah had become an infidel. Therefore any tradition related by him will not be reliable. Such people are not capable of relating the traditions of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.).

Abu Hurayrah, the Companion of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)

Abu Hurayrah was a companion of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), who embraced Islam in the year of the battle of Khaibar. Being unemployed all the time, he always accompanied the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Also, as he was aware of the real attitude of Abu Hurayrah the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said, "O Abu Hurayrah! Visit me only occasionally, so that your love for me increases." This shows that Abu Hurayrah did not love the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). However, this matter is beyond the domain of our discussion here. Yes! Abu Hurayrah is the greatest narrator of Ahle Sunnat traditions and in their view his reports are reliable.

In spite of the fact that this humble writer himself was from the Ahle Sunnat, he considers the errors of Abu Hurayrah opposed to justice. A few examples are mentioned below:

According to a correct report the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: "The foremost transgressor of this nation will be a person from Bani Umayyah." Abu Hurayrah witnessed the great transgression during the rule of Mu'awiyah yet he supported all this injustice, while the truth and righteousness were with Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Ultimately Mu'awiyah had Ali (a.s.) martyred and Abu Hurayrah still kept quiet. It is obvious that justice and injustice cannot be present at one place and it is not possible to prove that Abu Hurayrah was just.

Another example:

When Mu'awiyah was taking the oath of allegiance for his son Yazeed, some people opposed this, especially the people of Madinah. Mu'awiyah sent the tyrant Busr bin Artat to terrorize the people of Madinah. Seven thousand companions of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) were slain and more than three hundred chaste women were arrested and paraded naked in the market place to be sold as slaves.

If we refer to the books of great Ahle Sunnat scholars, namely, Aghani of Abul Faraj, Iqdul Farid of Jawzi, Jahiz, the well-known historian Ibne Khaldun, Ibne Kallikan, Tafsir Kabir of Tabari, Ibne Abil Hadid, Allamah Damiri and the writer of Fitratul Islam, we shall see that this tragic incident is recorded with all its details.

All the histories prove the co-operation of Abu Hurayrah and Busr bin Artat. Finally after committing such atrocities, Busr appointed Abu Hurayrah over the affairs of Madinah and himself set off to Yemen or Makkah! It should be known that Abu Hurayrah, who was once a companion of the holy Prophet (s.a.) had reached a stage when he became a stooge of Mu'awiyah and Busr bin Artat, and actively participated in terrorizing the people of Madinah. While the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has said that "One who terrorizes the people of Madinah will be terrorized by Allah and Allah will curse him and will not accept any of his deeds."

Now I would like to state that since Abu Hurayrah helped and supported Busr in oppressing and terrorizing the people of Madinah, he (Abu Hurayrah) did not remain just (Adil) anymore. Therefore traditions related by him are not reliable and correct. Secondly, Abu Hurayrah said: "Although prayers behind Ali are best, the dining table of Mu'awiyah is the richest." Abu Hurayrah himself confessed that truth was with Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and Mu'awiyah was evil personified and his food illegitimate. Yet, he followed the path of falsehood, which is against the requirement of justice.

Yes! The aim of this discussion is that just being a companion does not qualify one for reliability and authenticity. Rather, there were some people who in spite of their being with companions had committed such deeds that were absolutely opposed to justice and truth. We had mentioned that the foremost among the traditional proofs is the Holy Quran, followed by the traditions of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). The verses of the Holy Quran prove the superiority of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). Here we present two examples:

First Verse

"Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House and to purify you a (thorough) purifying." (Surah Ahzaab: 33)

The Almighty Allah said the truth. The Muslim Ummah is unanimous that the above verse was revealed to felicitate the five holy personages of the cloak, foremost among them being Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Now we shall examine how this verse imparts superiority to Hazrat Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Infallibility is a virtue the like of which is not found in the creatures. Infallibility of the angels is not of the same rank because they were inculcated with it in consonance with their creation. The infallibility of human beings belongs to the same type. The verse clearly proves the infallibility of the people of the cloak, and of course, Ali (a.s.) being amongst them. For, this verse has removed all the uncleanness and sins from the people of the cloak, not that after having committed wrongs they were purified from dirt. Actually, they had not any basis of committing wrongs. Apart from these personages none of the creatures are bestowed with such a quality and neither shall anyone obtain it in future.

Please pay attention! Is there anyone among the people apart from the people of the cloak, who could claim this merit? If anyone does so he would be obliged to present the arguments to prove his claim.

Proofs, as mentioned above are of two types: Rational as well as traditional. We have established by rational proofs that Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.) was the most superior among the Muslim people. Reason agrees to this without any hesitation. We have also proved by traditional proofs that after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), the best of the people and the possessors of immaculate purity were the Ahle Bait (a.s.), comprising Ali (a.s.), Fatema (s.a.), Hasan and Husain (a.s.).

Second verse

"Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives." (Surah Shura 42:23) Muslim scholars are unanimous that the Almighty Allah commands the Prophet (s.a.) in this verse, "Say: I do not want any recompense for the service of prophethood except the love of my near kin that is the most important duty of every Muslim."

There is also agreement that the near kin of Allah's prophet (s.a.) are only Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (a.s.). Now persons whose love and affection is an obligatory religious duty must necessarily be the best and superior of all the people. Also because love of anyone is not obligatory on Ali (a.s.), rather his love and affection is wajib for all Muslim people in the light of this verse. This proves that Ali (a.s.) was the most superior to all the people. In the Holy Quran, there are several clear verses that amply prove Ali (a.s.) was the best of the Muslim nation but here we do not feel the necessity of quoting more of such examples. We are content to mention only these two verses, as they are sufficient to prove our point.

Let us consider the traditions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) that announce the superiority of Ali (a.s.) over all the people. All the traditions that prove this will not be discussed because to bring all such traditions would require volumes. We shall be content to quote only some of these traditions.

However, the traditions that are quoted below are those traditions that are reliable and acceptable to all the Muslims. They are not even in need of any exposition or interpretation. Shia and Sunni scholars and other Islamic sects also agree to their correctness and have faith in them.

Hadith-e-Thaqlain: Tradition of Two Weighty Things Several companions have narrated and especially the six authentic books of traditions (Sihah-e-Sittah) including Bukhari and Muslim, Ahmad bin Hanbal and Malik Ibne Anas have recorded this tradition and certified the authenticity of this hadith. Here we mention the text of this hadith omitting the chain of narrators.

The holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said:

"Certainly I leave among you two heavy things. If you attach yourself to them, you will not go astray after me. One of them is greater than the other. (One is) the book of Allah, (which is) a firm rope from the heaven to the earth, and (secondly) my progeny, my Ahle Bait. They shall not separate with each other until they reach me at the pool. Then be careful how you deal with them."

The Muslim Ummah is unanimous that this hadith applies to the progeny of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) who were bestowed with this trust. They denote only Ali (a.s.), Fatima (s.a.) and Hasan and Husain (a.s.). The narrator, Ibne Habban says: I went with Masruf and asked Zaid Ibne Arqam regarding this and he said that they had asked the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) if his pure wives were also included in the progeny? To this the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) replied, "No! They are not included in it. Don't you see that the divorced woman is included in the progeny of her father?"

Now what is the effect of these traditions on the proofs of the superiority of Ali (a.s.)? Yes! It is clear that a sane person when he goes out on a journey etc. makes bequest regarding his important affairs. Therefore the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), prior to his departure from this world entrusted two important things to his Ummah - his progeny and the book of Allah. Now let us consider whether this was ordered by the Almighty or was it a personal decision of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Verily, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) did not say anything of his own accord (including this announcement). He was only echoing the command of the Almighty. Did the Almighty and the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) bequeath great and honorable things or were they petty and unimportant? Indeed the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) did not make a bequest regarding unimportant things. In this case, there are only two things: The words of Allah and the progeny of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.). And after the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), these two things are most superior and respected over all things.

The tradition clearly indicates that these two trusts will not separate from each other till Qiyamat. That is, wherever there is the word of Allah, love and affection of Ahle Bait (a.s.) should also be there. And wherever there is no love and affection for Ahle Bait (a.s.), there is no respect for the words of Allah (Quran).

For example: When Mu'awiyah rebelled against Ali (a.s.) and committed transgression, he gathered all the rebellious people like him and raised a standard of revolt perpetrating heinous crimes. In the battle of Siffeen, when they were about to be defeated, they raised the pages of Holy Quran aloft the spears and announced to the army of Amirul Momineen (a.s.), "We invite you for an arbitration by the Quran." Those wretched people had forgotten that it was impossible to benefit from the Quran while rejecting the progeny (Itrah) of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.). How could it to be when the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has said: "The two will not separate from each other till they meet me on the day of Qiyamat." But at Siffeen, they drew the swords against Ali, Hasan and Husain (a.s.) while feigning reverence to the Quran!

The most surprising thing was that some scholars have tried to justify the gross misdeeds and usurpation of Mu'awiyah and veiled the crimes and irreligious acts of this renegade! Mu'awiyah committed all such indecencies only to obtain worldly riches but the Mullahs have denied the clear truth. Now what can be said of such an attitude?

Hadith-e-Ghadeer: Tradition of Ghadeer-e-Khumm

The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) said,

"Of whomsoever I am the Master; this Ali is his Master too. O Allah! Love those who love him and be an enemy to those who are inimical to him." There is unanimity of the whole community of the Shia and Sunni scholars over the authenticity and correctness of this tradition. When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) reached a place called Ghadeer Khum on his return from the farewell Hajj (Hajjatul Widaa), he ordered the caravan to be halted and commanded that a pulpit be made from camel saddles. This was because he wanted to make an important announcement and a mammoth crowd awaited some important proclamation. As soon as the pulpit was ready, the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) ascended and announced the above tradition verbatim. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) proclaimed, "Of whomsoever I am the Master, this Ali is his Master too. O Allah! Love those who love him and be an enemy to those who are inimical to him."

The following great companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) heard this hadith from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) and confessed to it: Khuzaima bin Thabit, Sahl bin Sa'ad, Adi bin Hatim, Uqbah Amir, Abu Ayyub Ansari, Abul Haitham bin Tayhan, Abdullah bin Thabit, Abu Ya'la Ansari, Noman bin Ajlam al-Ansari, Thabit bin Wadiya Ansari, Abu Faddalal Ansari, Abdul Rahman bin Abde Rab, Junaida bin Junda, Zaid bin Arqam, Zaid bin Sharahil and others, Jabir bin Abdullah, Abdullah bin Abbas, Abu Saeed Khudri, Abuzar, Jubair bin Matam, Huzaifa bin Yaman, Huzaifa bin Aseed and Salman al-Farsi.

This tradition is reported by these great companions and recorded in books like Tarikh of Ibne Athir page 307 and Usudul Ghaabah, volume three. Also on page 321 of the same book volume three, page 308 of volume one, page 283 of volume eight, page 274 volume three. Also refer to Seerah-e-Halabi, volume three, page 40, Yanaabiul Mawaddah, Sawaaequl Muhreqah. And this hadith has been recorded in all the Sihah and accepted by their writers to be reliable. Specially Sahih Muslim, Nisaai, Tir

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