A Commentary on the Hamd Surah - Part 3
A mystical study
The knowledgeable have said that; “Beneficent and merciful have been taken from mercy and that both indicate hyperbole, but in Beneficent the exaggeration is much more than exaggeration in mercy. Analogy requires that mercy must precede Beneficent but because mercy is as a personal proper name and is not applied to the other beings, therefore it stands in prime to the other. It has been said that both enjoy the same conception and being repeated is only for the confirmation. The mystic taste accordance with highest levels of which the Qur’an was appeared, require that mercy must precede beneficent, since the Qur’an according to the people of heart, is the descendant of the divine manifestations and the written form enjoys the divine beautiful names and, as mercy is the most encompassing of the divine names nearest to the supreme name, and as the knowledgeable are sure that the manifestations by the encompassing names are prior to the manifestations by the embraced names and because every name that is more encompassing, the manifestation of which is prior, and also because the first manifestation in the unity is the manifestation in the supreme name of God. Then it turns to the manifestation in the supreme name stage in the beneficent and then that comes the manifestation in the stage of mercifulness. In the same way in the manifestation of appearance in act, it is the manifestation in the stage of “Will”? being the supreme name in this scene and the appearance of the supreme name of the essence having priority over all manifestations. Manifestation in the stage of beneficence encompassing all the beings of the invisible and visible realms and to that the verse “My mercy encompasses all things”?1 refers, being to precede other manifestations as the saying “His mercy precedes His fury”? refers to that somehow. Usually as the bismillah accordance with the inside and the soul being the form of the manifestations in act, and accordance with the mystery and the mystery of the mystery it is the form of the manifestations of Names or rather of essence,, and these manifestations appear first in the stage of God then in the stage of Beneficent”? and there in the stage of “merciful”? the intonation and written forms must be similar to the divine system.
Considering the Beneficent and the merciful in the Holy verse of al-hamd, which stands after “The Lord of the realms” probably due to this state that in the bismillah the attention goes to the appearance of the existence from the unseen and hiding places of existence.
In the Holy verse the attention is diverted to the revert and the inside. Anyway, in this probability exists a problem. Perchance it aims at the perfection of mercy of “beneficence” and “mercifulness” or it is possible there would be some other point. In any way, the mentioned point related to the bismillah deserves to be believed in, and may be it is beyond the grace of the mercy of the mercifulness given to the heart of this poor person. Praise be to Him due to whatever He has given.
A discussion and an acquirement
The formalist theologians declare that “Beneficent” and “Merciful” have been taken from ar-rahman, meaning compassionate connotation, and kindness. “These two terms convey compassionate connotation, at the same time one of them is more compassionate; namely, “Beneficent” the compassionate and merciful the kind of His servants giving them livehood and grace.1 Due to the requiring of an emotion for kindness and compassionate some commentary on ascribing them to the sacred essence has been given. Therefore, that is considered allegorical. Many others consider such adjectives common declare;”1 Pay attention upon the consequence and ignore the preliminaries. Pointing referring to God almighty, it is on the ground on the effects and acts, and not being on the beginnings and attributes. Therefore, the conception of “Beneficent” and “Merciful” as referred to God is the one who favors His servants mercifully. The schematics consider the entire God’s adjectives as mentioned above, or something similar therefore describing them and referring them to God is allegorical too.
However being as allegorical is odd, special in Beneficent. That it should be considered an odd case. The fact is that this term is coined for a conception, which is not apt to be applied allegorically. This is not allowed. Pay attention thereabout. And the learned and the men of study in answering to such problems have said: “The terms have been coined for general conception and the pure facts. Therefore confining to compassion and kindness has no place in within the term mercy and for whatever it has been coined. This attachment has been fabricated by the common belief; otherwise, it has nothing to do with the real conception and coining. And this case, apparently, seems far from research, since it is obvious the one who has coined it, has been of the common persons and the conception and the absolute facts have not been noticed by him while studying it yes, if the coiner would be God the exalted, or messengers accordance with the divine revelation an inspiration, a justification for it could be accepted, but that is not confirmed either. Shortly, the form of this term bears ambiguity, but the researcher’s main intention is also indefinite, rather it may be to declare this matter.
It has been mentioned that the coiner of the term though has not paid deep attention upon the general abstract conception while studying, yet, whatever has been coined thereabout are the very abstract general conceptions. For instance, when he wanted to coin “light” though he wanted to convey the real meaning but due to his lack of understanding and not seeing the mixture of light and darkness, because of his limited insight he coined merely “light”.
If he had been asked, “do you mean the term to denote the luminosity or the mixture of light and darkness?” He would have answered: “I meant its luminosity and the darkness the main course of the light never comes in this respect.”
Adapted from: "A Commentary on the Chapter of ‘Praise’" by: "Ayatullah Khomeini (R.A)"
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