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A Commentary on Caliphate within Fate and Destiny

The uncommon point in this topic lies in the fact that Ahl al-Sunnah, despite their belief in the inevitable fate and destiny, and that Allah — the Glorified — compels His bondmen to act according to His Will without giving them choice in anything, but when it comes to caliphate they hold that the Messenger of Allah (S) passed away leaving the matter (of caliphate) to be determined through consultation (shurà) among people, to elect someone for them.)

Whereas the Shi’ah hold exactly the opposite opinion, as though believing that man has option in his acts, and that Allah’s bondmen can do whatever they like (within the framework of the hadith:)
Neither determinism nor free will but a state in between the two), but when it comes to caliphate they hold that no one has any right of option!)

All this seems to be a contradiction from both sides: the Sunnah and Shi’ah at first blush, but this being untrue. As when the Sunnah hold that Allah, the Glorified, compels His bondmen in all of their acts, they in fact contradict the matter of fact, as they believe in Allah’s being the real owner of free will, but what He leaves for them being only imaginary option. Since Abu Bakr was elected, on the day of Saqifah, by ‘Umar and then by some of the Companions, who being in fact executors of the order of Allah, Who has made them only a medium, according to this allegation.)

Whereas the Shi’ah, when holding that Allah, the Glorified, made His bondmen free in their acts, they never contradict their opinion that caliphate being determined according to the Will of Allah alone, as stated in the verse: “Thy Lord bringeth to pass what He willeth and chooseth. They have never any choice...” That is due to the fact that caliphate, exactly like prophethood, is not among the acts done by people, and can never be determined by them or their choice. As Allah selects His apostle from among people, and delegates him (with a mission). The same is true regarding the successor of the Messenger, and people are free then either to obey the command of Allah or to disobey it, as actually happened during the lifetimes of the prophets throughout the course of ages. So (Allah’s) bondmen shall be free in accepting Allah’s choice, since the upright believer submits to what Allah has chosen and determined for him, while that who being ungrateful to the bounty of his Lord, rejects what Allah chose for him, rebelling against it. The Almighty Allah said:)

“... then whoever followeth My guidance, he shall go not astray nor put to grief. And whoever turneth away from My monition, verily his shall be a life straitened, and We shall raise him up on the Day of Judgment, blind. He shall say: “O’ my Lord! Why hast Thou raised me blind, whereas indeed I was seeing (before)?” (God) will say: “Thus (is the recompense) for did come unto thee Our signs but thou didst ignore them; And even so art thou forsaken this day.” (20:123-126))

After that, when considering the opinion of Ahl al-Sunnah in respect of this issue in particular, you won’t blame anyone, as whatever occurred and occurring because of the caliphate, and all the blood that was shed and honours that were violated, altogether were from Allah (by His Will), as commented some of knowledge-claimants among them by Allah’s saying: “... and had thy Lord pleased they would not have done it...” (6:112))

Whereas the belief of the Shi’ah being to hold responsible whoever caused the deviation and whoever disobeyed the command of Allah, each one according to the extent of his sin and that of everyone followed his heresy up to the Day of Resurrection, in accordance to the hadith: “Everyone of you being a guardian, and every one is responsible for his subjects.”)
Allah the Exalted said:)

And stop them, for verily they must be questioned.” (37:24)

Adapted from the book: "To Be With the Truthful" by: "Muhammad al-Tijani al-Samawi"

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