Rules Related to a Dying Person
539. A Muslim who is dying, whether man or woman, old or young, should, as a measure of precaution, be laid on his/her back if possible, in such a manner that the soles of his/her feet would face the Qibla (direction towards the holy Ka'bah)
540. It is recommended that the dead body should be laid facing the Qibla during the Ghusls. However, when Ghusls are completed, it is better to lay it the same way as it is laid when prayers are offered for it.
541. * It is an obligatory precaution upon every Muslim, to lay a dying person facing the Qibla. And if the dying person consents to it, there is no need to seek the permission for it from the guardian. Otherwise, the permission must be sought.
542. It is recommended that the doctrinal testimony of Islam (Shahadatain) and the acknowledgement of the twelve Imams and other tenets of faith should be inculcated to a dying person in such a manner that he/she would understand. It is also recommended that these utterances are repeated till the time of his/her death.
543. It is recommended that the following supplications should be read over to a dying person in such a manner that he/she would understand: Allahhummaghfir liyal kathira mim ma'asika waqbal minniyal yasira min ta'atika ya man yaqbalul yasira wa ya'afu 'anil kathir, Iqbal minniyal yasira wa'fu 'anniyal kathir. Innaka antal 'afuwwul Ghafur. Alla hum mar hamni fa innaka Rahim.
544. It is Mustahab to carry a person experiencing painfully slow death to the place where he used to offer prayers, provided that it does not cause him any discomfort.
545. If a person is in the throes of death it is Mustahab to recite by his side Surah Yasin, Surah as-Saffat, Surah al-Ahzab, Ayat al-Kursi and 54th verse of Surah al-A'raf and the last three verses of Surah al-Baqarah. In fact it is
better to recite as much from the holy Qur'an as possible.
546. * It is Makrooh to leave a dying person alone or to place a weight on his stomach, or to chatter idly or wail near him or to let only women remain with him. It is Makrooh to be by his/her side in the state of Janabat or Hayz.
Rules to Follow After the Death:
547. * It is Mustahab that the eyes and lips of a dead person be shut, its chin be tied, its hands and feet be straightened and to spread a cloth over it. If a person dies at night it is Mustahab to light the place where he/she is, to inform Momineen to join the funeral, and to hasten the burial. But if, they are not sure of his/her death, they should wait till they are certain. Moreover, if the dead person is a pregnant woman and there is a living child in her womb, her burial should be delayed till such time that her left side is cut open and the child is taken out and then to sew her side.
The Obligation of Ghusl, Kafan, Namaz and Dafn
548. * Giving Ghusl, Kafan, Hunoot, Namaz, and burial to every dead Muslim, regardless of whether he/she is an Ithna-Asheri or not, is wajib on the guardian.The guardian must either discharge all these duties himself or appoint someone to do them. And if anyone performs these duties, with or without the permission of the guardian, the guardian will be relieved of his responsibility.
And if the dead person had no guardian, or if the guardian refuses to discharge his duties, then these duties will be obligatory upon all equally, as Wajib-e-Kifaee which means if some people undertake to fulfil the obligation, others will be relieved of the responsibility. And if no one undertakes to do so, all will be equally sinful. And when a guardian refuses to discharge his duty, seeking his permission has no meaning.
549. If a person undertakes to fulfil the obligations to a dead body it is not obligatory on others to proceed for the same. However, if that person leaves the work half done, others must complete them.
550. * If a person is certain that others are fulfiling their obligations properly, then it is not obligatory for him to proceed for the purpose. However, if he is
in doubt or has suspicion, then he should take necessary steps.
551. If a person is certain that Ghusl, Kafan, Namaz or burial of a dead body has been performed incorrectly, he should proceed to do them correctly again. But if he just feels that probably the duties were not correctly discharged, or if he has a mere doubt, then it is not obligatory to undertake the work.
552. * The guardian of a wife is her husband. And in other cases, men who inherit the dead person according to the categories which will be explained later, will take precedence over each other. However, to say that the father of the deceased takes precedence over the son, the grandfather over the brothers, or full brothers over half-brothers or the paternal uncles over the maternal uncles, is a ponderable issue, and one should act with caution as the situation demands.
553. * A minor or an insane person does not qualify for guardianship in matters related to the dead person; similarly, an absent person who can neither attend to the duties himself, nor appoint someone to do them, has no authority as a guardian.
554. * If a person claims that he is the guardian of the dead person, or that the guardian of the dead person has given him permission to carry out its Ghusl, Kafan and Dafn, or if he claims that he is the appointed executor of the dead person in the matter of its final rituals, his claim will be accepted, provided that he is reliable, or that the corpse is in his possession, or that two Adils testify to his statement.
555. * If a dead person appoints someone other than his guardian to carry out his Ghusl, Kafan, Dafn and Namaz, then he will be the rightful person to fulfil those obligations. And it is not necessary that the person whom the deceased has appointed to carry out the duties personally should accept the will. However, if he accepts it he should act accordingly.
The Method of Ghusl of Mayyit
556. It is obligatory to give three Ghusls to a dead body. The first bathing should be with water mixed with "Sidr" (Beri) leaves. The second bathing should be with ater mixed with xamphor and the third should be with unmixed water.
557. The quality of "Sidr" leaves and comphor should neither be so much that the water becomes mixed ( Mudhaaf), nor so little that it may be said that " Sidr" leaves and comphor have not been mixed with water.
558. If enough quantity os "Sidr" leaves and comphor is available, then whatever quantity available should be mixed with water.
559. * If a person dies while he is in the state of Ihram his dead body should not be washed with water mixed with comphor. Instead of that, pure unmixed water should be used . However, in the following two situations, water with camphor should be used:
(i) If he or she dies in Hajj Tamattu' after completing Saee';
(ii) and if it is Hajj Qiran or Ifrad, he died after having shaved the head
560. * If "Sidr" leaves and camphor or either of these things is not available or its use is not lawful ( e.g. if it has been unsurped) the dead body should be given Ghusl, on the basis of precaution, with pure, unmixed water instead of the Ghusl which is not possible, and it should also be given one tayammum
561. * A person who gives Ghusl to a dead body should be a Muslim, perferable a Shia Ithna Asheri, adult and sane, and should know the rules of Ghusl. And if an intelligent, didcerning boy or girl, who is not yet baligh, gives Ghusl correctly, it will be sufficient. And if the deceased belongs to a sect other than Shia Ithan Asheri, and if he or she is given Ghusl according to the rules of his or her sect by a person of his or her sect, then the Shia Ithan Asheri momin will be relieve of the responsibility, except if he is the guardian.
562. * One who gives Ghusl to the dead body should perform the act with
the niyyat of Qurbat, that is, obedience to the pleasure of Allah.
563. * Ghusl to a Muslim child, even illegitimate, is obligatory. But the Ghusl, Kafan, Dafan of the a non Muslim who has been insane since childhood and has grown up without having recovered..
564. * If a foetus of 4 months or more is still-born it is obligatory to give it Ghusl, and even if it has not complete four months, but it has formed features of a human child, it must be given absent, the foetus will bewrapped up in a cloth and buried without Ghusl.
565. * It is unlawful for a man to give Ghusl to the dead body of a woman and for a woman to give Ghusl to the dead body of a man. Husband and wife can, however, give Ghusl to the dead body of each other, although the recommended precaution is that they should also avoid doing so, in normal circumstances.
566. * A man can give Ghusl to the dead body of a little girl and similarly a woman can give Ghusl to the dead body of a little boy.
567. * If no man is available to give Ghusl to the dead body of a man, his kinswomen who are also his mahram ( one with whom marriage is prohibited e.g. , mother, sister, paternal aunt and maternal aunt) or those women who become his mahram by way of marriage or sucking can give Ghusl to his dead body. Similary if no woman is available to give Ghusl to the dead body of a woman her kinsmn who are also her mahram or or have become by marriage can give Ghusl to her dead body. In either case, it is not obligatory to cover the body except the private parts; though doing so is preferred.
568. * If a man gives Ghusl to the dead body of a man, or a woman to the dead body of a woman, it is permissible to keep the body bare, except the private parts. But it is better to give Ghusl from under the dress.
569. It is haraam to look at the private parts of corpse and if a person giving
Ghusl looks at them, he commits a sin, though the Ghusl will not be void.
570. * If there is AYN Najasat on any parts of the dead body, it is obligatory to first remove it before giving Ghusl. And it is preferred that before the corpse is given Ghusl, it should be clean and free from all other najasat.
571. * Ghusle for a dead body is mimilar to Ghus of Janabat. And the obligatory precaution is that a corpse should not be given Ghusl by Irtimasi, that is, immersion, as long as it is possible to give Ghusl by way of Tartibi. And even in the case of Tartibi Ghusl it is necessary that the body should be washed on the right side first, and then the left left side. And the recommended precaution is that, if possible, none of the three parts of the body be immersed in the water. Instead water should be poured on the dead body.
572. * If someone dies in the state of Hayz or Janabat it is is not necessary to give him/ her their respective Ghusls. The Ghusl given to the dead body will suffice.
573. * As a preaution, it is haraam to change any fee for giving Ghusl to the dead. And if someone gives Ghusl with a intention of earning and without the Niyyat of Qurbat, then the Ghusl will be void. However, it is not unlawful to charge for the preliminary preparations before Ghusl.
574. * There is no rule for Jabirah in Ghusl of Mayyit, so if water is not available or there is some other valid excuse for abstaining from using water for the Ghusl, then the dead body should given one tayammum instead of Ghusl. As a recommended precaution, three tayammum may be given, and in one of the tayammum, there should be a Niyyat of " ma-fizzimmah". This means that a person giving tayammum resolves that this taymmum is given to absolve him of his responsibility.
575. A person giving tayammum to the dead body should strike his own palms on earth and then wipe them on the face and back of the hands of the dead body. And the obligatory precaution is that he should, if possible, use the hands of the dead for its tayammum .
Rules Regarding Kafan
576. The body of a dead Muslim should be given Kafan with three pieces of cloth; a loin cloth, a shirt or tunic, and a full cover.
577. * As a precaution, the lion cloth should be long enough to cover the body from the navel up to the knees, better still if it covers the body from the chest up to the feet. As a orecaution, the shirt should be long enough to cover the entire body from the top of the shoulders up to the middle of the calf, and better still if it reaches the feet, As a precaution, the sheet cover should be long enough to conceal the whole body, so that both its ends could be tied. Its breadth should be enough to allow ones side to overlap the other.
578. The wajib portion of the loin cloth is that which covers from navel up to the knwee and wajib portion of a shirt is that which covers from the shoulder up to the middle of the calf of the legs. Whatever has been mentioned over and above this is the Mustahab part of the Kafan
579. * The Wajib quantity of Kafan mentioned in the above rule should be financed from the estate of the deceased, and a reasonable quantity to cover the Mustahab may also be charged to the estate, if the status of the deceased demands. But as a recommended precaution, the Mustahab parts of Kafan should not be changed to the shares of minor heirs.
580. * If a person makes a will that the Mustahab quantity of the Kafan ( as mentioned in two foregoing rules ) should be paid from the 1/3 of his / her estate, he /she has made a will that 1/3 of the estate should be spent for himself or herself but has not specified the type of its expenditure, or has specified it for only a part of it, then the Mustahab quantity of Kafan can be taken from 1/3 of the estate.
581. * If the deceased has not made a will that Kafan may be paid for from the 1/3 of his estate and if they wish to take it from the estate, they must not
draw more than what has been indicated in rule no. 579. And if they procured a Kafan which is unusually expensive, then the extra amount paid for it should not be charged to the estate. However, if his baligh heirs agree to pay from their shares of inheritance, then the sum can be deducated to the extent agreed.
582. The Kafan of a wife is the responsibility of her husband even if she owns her own wealth. Similarly, if a woman is given a revocable divorce and she dies before the expiry of her Iddah, her husband should provide her Kafan . And if her husband is not adult or is insane, the guardian of the husband should provide Kafan for the wife from his property.
583. * It is not obligatory for the relatives of deceased to provide his Kafan even if they were his dependents during his life time.
584. *As a precaution, it must be ensure that each of the three pieces used for Kafan is not thin as to show the body of the deceased. However, if the body is full concealed when all the three pieces are put together, then it will suffice.
585. * Kafan for a dead person must not be a unsurpep one, that is, unlawfully appropriated. If nothing else but the unsurped Kafan is available, then the body will be buried without kafan. In fact, the unsurped Kafan should removed even if the body has already been buried, except in some special situations, which cannot be discussed here.
586. * It is not permissible to give a Kafan which is najis, or which is made of pure silk, or which is woven with gold, except in the situation of helplessness, when no alternative is to be found.
587. It is not permissible to give Kafan made of hide or skin or skin of a dead Najis animal, in normal ciecumstances. In fact, even the skin of a dead Pak animal, or Kafan made of wool or fur from the animal whose meat is haraam to eat should not be used in normal circumstances. ( By the term 'dead' is meant an animal who has not been slaughtered according to Shariah ). But Kafan made of wool, fur or skin of a slaughtered halal animal can be used for the pur-
pose. However, it is a recommended precaution to avoid them.
588. If the Kafan becomes Najis owing to its own najasat, or to some other najasat, and if the Kafan is not lost totally, its najis part should be washed or cut off, even after the dead body has been placed in the grave. And if it is not possible to wash it, or cut it off, but it is not possible to wash it, or cut it off, but it is possible to change it, then it should be changed.
589. If a person who is wearing Ihram for Hajj or Umra dies, he should be given Kafan like all others and there is no harm in covering his head and face.
590. It is Mustahab that one keeps one's Kafan and " Sidr" leaves and camphor ready during lifetime.
Rules of Hunut
591. * After having given Ghusl to a dead body it is wajib to give Hunut, which is to apply camphor on its forehead, both the palms, both the knees and both the big toes of its feet. It is not necessary to rub the camphor, it must be seen on those parts. It is Mustahab to apply camphor to the nose tip also. Camphor must be powded and fresh, and if it is so stale it has lost its frangrance, then it will not suffice.
592. * The recommended precaution is that camphor should first be applied on the forehead of the decead. It is not necessary to observe sequence while applying camphor to other parts mentioned above.
593. * It is better that Hunut is given before Kafan, although there is no harm in giving Hunut during Kafan or even after.
594. * It is not permissible to administer Hunut to a person who died in the state of Ihram for Umrah and Hajj, except in circumstances explained in rule no 559.
595. * Though it is haraam for a woman to perfume herself if her husband has died and she is in Iddah, but if she dies in Iddah, it is obligatory to give
her Hunut .
596. * As a recommended precaution, purfumes like musk, ambergris and aloes-wood ( 'Ud) should not be applied to the dead body, and these things should not be mixed with camphor.
597. It is Mustahab to mix a small quantity of Turbat ( soil of the land around the shrine of Imam Husayn) with camphor, but it should not be applied to those parts of the body, where its use may imply any disrespect. It is also necessary that the quantity of Turbat is not much, so that the indentity of camphor does not change.
598. * If comphor is not available or the quantity available is just sufficient for Ghusl only, then it is not wajib to apply Hunut. And if it is in excess of the requirement for Ghusl but is not sufficient for administering Hunut to all the parts, then as a precaution camphor will be applied on the forehead of the dead body first and the remainder, if any, will be applied to other parts.
599. * It is also Mustahab that 2 pieces of fresh and green twings are placed in the grave with the dead body.
Rules of Namaz-e-Mayyit
600. It is obligatory to offer Namaz-e-Mayyit for every Muslim, as well as for a Muslim child if it has completed 6 years of its age.
601. * If a child had not completed 6 years of its age, but it was a discerning child who knew that Namaz was, then as an obligatory precaution, Namaz-e-Mayyit for it should be offerred. If it did not know of Namaz, then the prayers may be offerred with the Niyyat of Raja. However, to offer Namaz-e-Mayyit for a still born child is not Mustahab.
602. Namaz-e-Mayyit should be offered after the dead body has been given Ghusl, Hunut and Kafan and if it is offered before or during the proformance of these acts, it does not suffice, even if it is due to forgetfulness or on account of not knowing the rule.
603. It is not necessary for a person who offers Namaz-e-Mayyit to be in Wudhu or Ghusl or tayammum nor is it necessary that his body and dress be Pak Rather there is no harm even if his dress is unsurped one. However, it is better that while offering this Namaz one should observe all the formal rules which are normally observe in other prayers.
604. One who offers Namaz-e-Mayyit should face the Qibla, and it is also obligatory that at the time of Namaz-e-Mayyit, the dead body remains before him on its back, in a manner that its head is on his right and its feet on his left side.
605. * As a recommended precaution, the place where a man stands to offer Namaz-e-Mayyit should not be a usurped one, and it should not be higher or lower than the place where the dead body is kept. However, its being a little higher or lower is immaterial.
606. The person offering Namaz-e-Mayyit should not be dstant from the dead body. However, if he is praying in a congregation, then there is no
harm in his being distant from the dead body in the rows which are connected to each other.
607. * In Namaze-eMayyit, one who offers prayers should stand in such a way that the dead body is in in front of him, except if the Namaz is prayed in JAma'at and the lines extend beyond on the both sides, then praying away from the dead body will not be objectionable.
608. As a precaution, there should be no curtain or wall or any other obstruction between the dead body and the person offering Namaz-e-Mayyit. However, there is no harm if the dead body is in a coffin or in any other similar thing.
609. * The private parts of the dead body should be concealed when Namaz-e-Mayyit is being offered. And if it was notpossible to give Kafan, even then at least its private parts should be covered with a board or brick or any similar thing.
610. A person should be standing while offering Namaz-e-Mayyit and should offer it with Niyyat of Qurbat, specifying the dead person for whom he is praying. For example, he should make his intention thus: Iam offering Namaz for this dead person in compliance with the pleasure of Allah."
611. If there is no one who is capable of praying Namaz-e-Mayyit while standing, then it can be offered while sitting.
612. If the deceased had made a will that a particular person should lead the prayers for him the recommended precaution is that such person should take permission from the guardian of the dead person.
613. It is Makrooh to repeat Namaz-e-Mayyit a number of times, unless the dead person was an Aalim and pious one, in which case it is not Makrooh.
614. * If a dead body is buried without Namaz-e-Mayyit, either intentionally or forgetfully, on account of an excuse, or if it transpires after its burial that the prayers offerred for it was void, it will not be permissible to dig up
the grave for praying Namaz-e-Mayyit. There is no objection to praying, with the Niyyat of Raja', by the graveside, if one feels that the decay has not yet taken place.
Method of Namaz-e-Mayyit
615. There are 5 takbirs (saying Allahu Akbar ) in Namaz-e-Mayyit and it is sufficient if a person recites those 5 takbirs in the following order:
Thereafter he should pronouce the 5th takbir.
It is, however, better that he should pronounce the following supplications after the takbirs respectively:
After the 1st takbir: Ash hadu an la ilaha illallahu wahdahu la sharika lah. Wa Ashhadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa Rasuluh, arsalahu bil haqqi bashiran wa naziran bayna yada yis sa'ah.
After the 2nd takbir: Alla humma sali 'ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad wa barik ' ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad warham Muhammadan wa Ala Muhammadin ka afzali ma sallayta wa barakta wa tarah hamta ' ala Ibrahima wa Ali Ibrahim innaka Hamidun Majid wa sali ' ala jami'il ambiya ' iwal-mursalina wash-shuhada'i was-siddiqina wa jami'i' ibadillah his-salihin.
After the 3rd takbir: Alla hum maghfir lil mu'minina wal mu'minat wal muslimina wal muslimat, al ahya'i minhum wal amwat tabi'baynana wa baynahum bil khayrati innaka mujibud-da'wat innaka ' ala kulli shy'in Qadeer.
After the 4th takbir: Alla humma inna haza ' abduka wabnu ' abdika wabnu amatika nazala bika wa anta khayru manzulin bihi Alla humma inna la na' lamu
minhu illa khayra wa anta a'alamu bihi minna. Alla humma in kana mohsinan fa zid fi ihsanihi wa in kana musi'an fatajawaz anhu waghfir lahu. Alla hummaj' alhu 'indaka fi a ' la 'illiyyin wakhluf fil ghabirin warhamhu bi-rahmatika ya ar hamar Rahimin.
If the dead body is that of a woman he should say: Alla humma inna hazihi ' amatuka wabnatu 'abdika wabnatu amatika nazalat bika wa anta khayra manzulin bihi Allah hummah inna la na'lamu minha illa khayra wa anta a'lamu biha minna. Alla humma in kanat mohsinatan fa zid fi ihsaniha wa in kanat musi'antan fatajawaz 'anha waghfir laha. Alla hummaj'al ha 'indaka fi a'la 'illiyin wakhluf 'ala ahliha fil ghabirin warhamha bi-rahmatika ya ar hamar Rahimin. Thereafter he should pronouce the 5th takbir
616. A person offering prayers for the dead body should recite takbirs and supplications in a sequence, so that Namaz-e-Mayyit does not loss its form.
617. A person who joins Namaz-e-Mayyit to follow Imam should recite all the takbirs and supplications.
Mustahab Acts of Namaz-e-Mayyit
618. The following acts are Mustahab in the prayers for the dead body:
the prayers with him to recite them in a low voice.
619. It is Makrooh to perform prayers for dead bodies in masjids, except in Masjidul Haram.