Rafed English

Mutahhiraat

Mutahhiraat

149. * There are twelve things which make najis objects Pak: (i)Water
(ii)Earth
(iii)The Sun
(iv)Transformation (Istihala)
(v)Change (Inqilab)
(vi)Transfer (Intiqal)
(vii)Islam
(viii)Subjection (Taba'iyat)
(ix)Removal of original najasat
(x)Confining (Istibra) of animal which feeds on najasat
(xi)Disappearance of a Muslim
(xii)Draining of the usual quantity of blood from the slaughtered body of an animal.

Water

150. * Water makes najis thing Pak, when the following four conditions are fulfilled:
(i) The water should be pure. Hence a najis thing cannot be made Pak with mixed water like rose-water, or melon-water etc. (Mudhaaf)
(ii) The water should be Pak.
(iii) The water should not turn into Mudhaaf while the najis thing is being washed. Furthermore, the smell, colour, or taste of the najasat should not exist after the final washing, but if changes occur during earlier washings, there is no harm in it. For example, if a thing is washed with Kurr-water, or under-Kurr water and, in order to make it Pak, it is necessary to wash it twice, it will become Pak if the changes in the water do not occur in the second washing. Any changes occurring in the first washing would not matter.
(iv) Small particles of Najisul Ayn should not remain behind in a najis thing after it has been washed. Other conditions for making najis thing Pak by water less than Kurr will be mentioned later.


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151. * The interior of a najis vessel, or utensil, must be washed three times if less than Kurr water is used, and as per obligatory precaution, the same will apply if Kurr or running water is used. If a dog drinks water or any other liquid from a utensil, the utensil should be first scrubbed with Pak earth, and after washing off the dust, it should be washed twice with Kurr or lesser water. Similarly, if the dog licks a utensil, and something remains in it, it should be scrubbed with dust before washing. And if the saliva of a dog falls into the utensil, as per obligatory precaution, it should be scrubbed with dust and then washed with water three times.

152. * If the mouth of a utensil which a dog has licked, is narrow, dust should be thrown into it and after adding some quantity of water, it should be shaken vigorously, so that the dust may reach all parts of it. Thereafter, the utensil should be washed in the manner mentioned above.

153. If a utensil is licked by a pig, or if it drinks any liquid from it, or in which a field-mouse has died, then it should be washed seven times with running water, or Kurr or lesser water. It will not be necessary to scour it with dust.

154. A utensil which becomes najis because of alcoholic beverage, should be washed three times, with no difference between Kurr, lesser, or running water.

155. If an earthenware has been made of najis clay, or najis water has penetrated in it, it should be put into Kurr or running water, so that wherever water reaches, it will be Pak. And if it is intended to make its interior Pak it should be left in Kurr or running water for such time, that the water would penetrate into its entire structure. And if the earthenware is moist, preventing water from reaching its inner parts, then it should be allowed to dry up, before it is put in Kurr or running water.

156. A najis utensil can be made Pak with under-Kurr water in two ways: (i) The utensil should be filled up with water and emptied three times. (ii) Some quantity of water is poured in it, and then the utensil is vigorously shaken, so that the water reaches all najis parts before it is spilled. This should be done three times.

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157. If a large pot like a cauldron etc. becomes najis, it will be Pak if it is filled up with water three times, and emptied every time. Alternatively, if water is poured from above three times, in such a way that it reaches all its sides, and then the water which collects at the bottom is drawn out everytime, it will become Pak. But as a recommended precaution, the vessel used for drawing out water should be washed, when being used for the second and third time.

158. * If najis copper and similar things are melted, and washed with water, their exterior becomes Pak.

159. * If a baking oven (Tannur) becomes najis with urine, and if water is poured into it once from above, in a manner that it reaches all its sides, the oven will become Pak. But as a recommended precaution, this should be done twice. And if the oven has become najis due to something other than urine, then the najasat should be eliminated first, and thereafter, water will be poured into it as described. It is better that a pit or hole is dug at the bottom, so that water collects there. That water is then drawn out, and the pit is filled with Pak earth.

160. * If a najis thing is immersed once in Kurr or running water, in such a way that water reaches all its najis parts, it becomes Pak. And in the case of a carpet or dress, it is not necessary to squeeze or wring or press it. And when body or dress is najis because of urine, it must be washed twice even in Kurr water.

161. * When a thing which has become najis with urine, is to be made Pak with water less than Kurr, it should be poured once, and as water flows off eliminating all the traces of urine, the thing will become Pak. But if dress or body has become najis because of urine, it must be washed twice so that it is Pak. When a cloth or a carpet and similar things are made Pak with water which is less than Kurr, it must be wrung, or squeezed, till the water remaining in it runs out.

162. * If anything becomes najis with the urine of a suckling child, who has not yet started taking solid food, and, as a precaution, is less than two

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years old, the thing will be Pak if water is poured over it once, reaching all parts which had been najis. As a recommended precaution, water should be poured over it once again. And if it is a carpet or dress etc. it will not be necessary to squeeze it.

163. * If anything becomes najis with najasat other than urine, it becomes Pak by first removing the najasat and then pouring under Kurr water once, allowing it to flow off. But, if it is a dress etc., it should be squeezed so that the remaining water should flow off.

164. * If it is proposed to make Pak a mat, woven with thread, it should be immersed in Kurr or running water. When the essential najasat disappears from it, it will be Pak. But if one uses under Kurr water for making it Pak, then it must be wrung or squeezed in whatever way possible, even by passing it under the feet, till water in it runs off.

165. * If the exterior of wheat, rice, soap etc. becomes najis, it becomes Pak by dipping it in Kurr or running water. But, if their interior becomes najis, they will be Pak if Kurr or running water reaches the internal parts. However, in the case of a soap and similar objects, water does not reach the internal parts at all.

166. * If one doubts whether najis water has seeped into the interior of soap or not, its interior will be considered Pak.

167. * If the outer part of rice, meat, or any other similar thing becomes najis, it may be placed in a bowl etc., and then water is poured on it once. Then the bowl is emptied, so that the objects in it become Pak. But if the bowl itself is najis, this process must be repeated three times. At the end, the bowl will also become Pak. If one wishes to make a dress or similar thing Pak in a container, one will pour water, and then press and squeeze the object and tilt the container, so that the remaining wa ter pours off.

168. * If a najis dress, which has been dyed with indigo or with any similar dye, is dipped into Kurr or running water, it will become Pak if water reaches all its parts before water becomes mudhaaf with colour. But if it is

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made Pak with less than Kurr water, it will become Pak only if mudhaaf water does not come out at the time of wringing or squeezing.

169. If a dress is washed with Kurr-water or running water, and later, for example, black mud is found stuck on it, the dress will be Pak if one does not suspect that the black mud has prevented water from reaching the dress.

170. * If slush of mud or soap is seen on dress etc. after being made Pak with water, it will be considered Pak. However, if najis water has reached the interior of mud or soap, then the exterior of the slush will be Pak, and its interior will be najis.

171. A najis thing does not become Pak unless the Najisul Ayn is removed from it, but there is no harm if the colour, or smell of the najasat remains in it. So, if blood is removed from a cloth, and the cloth is made Pak with water, it will become Pak even if the colour of blood remains on it. But if, on account of the smell or colour, it becomes certain, or seems probable that some particles of najasat are still present in the cloth etc., it will remain najis.

172. * If najasat of the body is removed in Kurr or running water, the body will become Pak, except when it is najis because of urine, for which one washing is not enough. But it is not necessary to walk in and out of water to achieve two washing. If a person under water wipes the najis part with hand, allowing water to reach there again, it will suffice.

173. * If najis food remains between the teeth, and water is taken in the mouth and moved in such a way that it reaches the entire najis food, the food becomes Pak.

174. * If the najis hair of head and face is washed with under Kurr-water and if it is not overgrown, it is not necessary to squeeze them for remaining water to flow off.

175. * If a part of the najis body, or dress is washed with under Kurr-water the parts adjacent to it where water usually reaches will become Pak,

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when the najis part becomes Pak. It means that it is not necessary to wash those sides independently, as t he najis part and parts around it become Pak together. And similar is the case, if a Pak thing is placed by the side of a najis thing, and water is poured on both of them. Hence, if water is poured on all fingers while trying to make one najis finger Pak, and najis as well as Pak water reaches them all, they will all be Pak together.

176. Meat or fat which becomes najis, can be made Pak with water like all other things. Same is the case if the body or dress has a little grease on it, which does not prevent water from reaching it.

177. If a utensil or one's body is najis, but also so greasy that water cannot reach it, one should first remove the grease, so that water may reach one's body, or the utensil before making it Pak.

178. Tap water which is connected with Kurr-water is considered to be Kurr.

179. If a person washes a thing with water, and becomes sure that it has become Pak, but doubts later whether or not he had removed the Najisul Ayn from it, he should wash it again, and ensure that the Najisul Ayn has been removed.

180. If the ground which absorbs water (e.g. land on the surface of which there is fine sand) becomes najis, it can be made Pak with under-Kurr water.

181. * If the floor which is made of stones, or bricks or other hard ground, in which water is not absorbed, becomes najis, it can be made Pak with under-Kurr water, but, it is necessary that so much water is poured on it that it begins to flow. And if that water is not drained out, and it collects there, it should be drawn out by a vessel or soaked by a cloth.

182. If the exterior of salt-stone or something resembling it, becomes najis, it can be made Pak with under-Kurr water.

183. If najis sugar, or syrup is turned into solid cubes, or granules, it will not become Pak if it is immersed in Kurr or running water.

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2. Earth
184. * The earth makes the sole of one's feet and shoes Pak, provided that the following four conditions are fulfilled: (i) The earth should be Pak. (ii) The earth should be dry, as a precaution. (iii) As an obligatory precaution, the najasat should have stuck from the earth. (iv) If Najisul Ayn, like blood or urine, or something which has become najis, like najis clay, is stuck on the sole of a foot, or a shoe, it will be Pak only if it is cleared by walking on earth, or by rubbing the foot of the shoe against it. Therefore, if the Najisul Ayn vanishes by itself, and not by walking or rubbing on the ground, the foot or the sole will not be Pak by earth, as an obligatory precaution. And the earth should be dust or sand, or consisting of stones or laid with bricks; which means walking on carpet, mats, green grass will not make the sole of feet or shoes Pak.

185. Walking over a tar road, or a wooden floor, will not make the najis sole of feet and shoes Pak. It is a matter of Ishkal.

186. In order to make the sole of one's feet or shoe Pak, it is better that one should walk a distance of at least fifteen arm-lengths or more, even if the najasat disappears by walking a lesser distance, or by rubbing one's foot on earth.

187. It is not necessary that the najis sole of one's feet or shoe are wet. They become Pak by walking on earth, even if they are dry.

188. When the najis sole of one's foot or shoe becomes Pak by walking on earth, the parts adjacent to it, which are usually blotched with mud, become Pak.

189. If a person moves on his hands and knees, and his hands or knees become najis, it is improbable that they become Pak by such movement. Similarly, the end of a stick, the bottom of an artificial leg, the shoe of quadruped and the wheels of a car or a cart etc. would not be Pak.

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190. If after walking, the smell or colour of the najasat, or its invisible particles, remain in the sole of the feet or the shoe, there is no harm in it, although the recommended precaution is that one should walk so much, that these things also disappear.

191. * The inner part of the shoe does not become Pak by walking, and similarly, the under part of the socks will not become Pak, unless it is made of skin or something similar, and one walks with it.

3. The Sun
192. * The sun makes the earth, building, and the walls Pak, provided the following five conditions are fulfilled: (i) The najis thing should be sufficiently wet, and if it is dry, it should be made wet so that the sun dries it up.
(ii) If the Najisul Ayn is present on that thing, it should be removed from it before it is dried by the sun.
(iii) Nothing should intervene between the najis thing and the sun. Therefore, if the rays fall on the najis thing from behind a curtain etc, or a cloud, and makes it dry, the thing will not become Pak. But, there is no harm if the cloud is so thin that it does not serve as an impediment, between the najis thing and the sun.
(iii) Only the sun should make the najis thing dry. So, if a najis thing is jointly dried by the wind and the sun, it will not become Pak. However, it would not matter if the wind blows lightly, and it may not be said that it has had any share in making the najis thing dry.
(iv) The sun should dry up the whole najis part of the building all at once. If the sun dries the surface of the najis earth, or building, first, and later on dries the inner part, only the surface will become Pak, and the inner portion will remain najis.

193. * A najis mat will be made Pak by the sun, but if it is woven with threads, then the threads becoming Pak is a matter of Ishkal. Similarly, the sun does not, in all probabilities, make Pak the trees, the grass, the doors and the windows.

194. If the sun shines on najis earth, and one doubts later whether the earth
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was wet or not at that time, or whether the wetness dried up because of the sunshine or not, the earth will remain najis. Similarly, if one doubts whether Najisul Ayn had been removed from the earth before sunshine, or whether there was any impediment preventing direct sunshine, the earth will remain najis.

195. If the sun shines on one side of a najis wall and as a consequence of it, the other side of the wall also dries up, then both the sides will be considered Pak.

4. Transformation (Istihala)
196. If a najis thing undergoes such a , that it assumes the category of a Pak thing it becomes Pak; for example, if a najis wood burns and is reduced to ashes, or a dog falls in a salt-marsh and transforms into salt, it becomes Pak. But a thing do es not become Pak if its essence or category does not change; like, if wheat is ground into flour, or is used for baking bread, it does not become Pak.

197. * Any earthenware which is made of najis clay, is najis. But coal derived from najis wood will be Pak, if it has no semblance of its origin.

198. A najis thing about which it is not known whether it has undergone any transformation (Istihala) or not, remains najis.

5. Change (Inqilab)
199. Any liquor which becomes vinegar by itself, or by mixing it with vinegar or salt, becomes Pak.

200. * Wine which is prepared from najis grapes etc., or if any external najasat reaches it, would not become Pak, if it turns into vinegar.

201. Vinegar which is prepared from najis grapes, raisins and dates is najis.

202. If tiny stems and stalks from grapes or dates are added, and then vinegar is poured over it, or, if cucumber and brinjal is added before it turns into vinegar, there will be no harm, except if it becomes an intoxicant, before becoming vinegar.

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203. * If the juice of grapes ferments by itself, or when heated, it becomes haraam. However, if it boils so much that only 1/3 part of it is left, it becomes halal. And it has already been mentioned in rule 114 that the juice of grapes does not become najis on fermentation.

204. * If 2/3 of the grape juice gets reduced without fermentation, and the remainder ferments, and if it is commonly held as grape juice and not as syrup, it will be haraam, as an obligatory precaution.

205. The juice of grapes, about which it is not known whether fermentation has taken place or not, is halal. But if it ferments, then it will not be halal till 2/3 of it is gone.

206. If, for example, there are some ripe grapes in a bunch of unripe grapes, and the juice of that bunch is not commonly known as "grape juice", it will be halal even if it ferments.

207. If one grape falls in something which is boiling with heat, and if it ferments, but does not get dissolved in it, eating that grape alone will be haraam.

208. If juice of grapes is being cooked in several pots, it is permissible to use the same spoon for the pot which has boiled, and the one which has not.

209. A thing, about which one does not know whether it is unripe grapes or ripe grapes, will be halal if it ferments.

6. Transfer (Intiqal)
210. * If the blood of a human being, or of an animal whose blood gushes forth when its large vein is cut, is sucked by an insect, normally known to be bloodless, and it becomes part of its body, the blood becomes Pak. This process is called Intiqal.
But when a blood-sucking leech sucks human blood during some treatment, it will be najis, because it is not considered as part of its body – it is considered as human blood.

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211. If one kills a mosquito which has sat on one's body, and blood which it has sucked comes out, it will be considered Pak, as it was destined to be its part, even if the time gap between its sucking and it being killed be very small. However, as a recommended precaution, one should avoid such blood.

7. Islam
212. If an unbeliever testifies Oneness of Allah, and the Prophethood of Prophet Muhammad, in whatever language, he becomes a Muslim. And just as he was najis before, he becomes Pak after becoming a Muslim, and his body, along with the saliva and the sweat, is Pak. But if he has any Najisul Ayn in his body, it should be removed, and then washed. In fact, that part should be washed even if the Najisul Ayn had been removed earlier, as per obligatory precaution.

213. * If before an unbeliever becomes a Muslim, his wet dress touched his body, as an obligatory precaution, it should be avoided, regardless of whether it is on his body or not.

214. If an unbeliever professes Islam, he will be Pak even if another person is not sure whether he has embraced Islam sincerely, or not. And the same order applies even if it is known that he has not sincerely accepted Islam, but his words or deeds do not betray anything which may be contrary to the confirmation by him of the Oneness of Allah, and of Prophet Muhammad being Prophet of Allah.

8. Subjection (TABA'IYAT)
215. Taba'iyat means that a najis thing become Pak, in subjection of another thing becoming Pak.

216. When wine is transformed into vinegar, its container, up to the level wine reached on account of fermentation, will become Pak. But, if the back part of the container became najis because of contact with wine, it should be avoided, even after wine h as transformed into vinegar.

217. * The child of an unbeliever becomes Pak by Taba'iyat, in two cases:

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(i) If an unbeliever embraces Islam, his child in subjection to him becomes Pak. Similarly, if the mother, paternal grandfather, or paternal grandmother of a child embraces Islam, the child will become Pak, provided that it is in their custody and care.
(ii) If the child of an unbeliever is captured by Muslims, and his father, paternal grandfather or maternal grandfather is not with him, he becomes Pak. In both the cases, the child becomes Pak by subjection, on the condition that if it has attained the ag e of understanding and discerning, it does not show inclination to Kufr.

218. The plank or slab of stone on which a dead body is given Ghusl, and the cloth with which his private parts are covered, and the hands of the person who gives Ghusl and all things washed, together with the dead body, become Pak when Ghusl is over.

219. When a person washes something with water to make it Pak, his hands washed along with that thing, will be Pak when the thing is Pak.

220. * If cloth etc. is washed with under-Kurr water and is squeezed as usual, allowing water to flow off, the water which still remains in it is Pak.

221. * When a najis utensil is washed with under-Kurr water, the small quantity of water left in it after spilling the water of final wash, is Pak.

9. Removal of Najisul Ayn
222. * If body of an animal is stained with an Najisul Ayn like blood or with something which has become najis, for example, najis water, its body becomes Pak when the najasat disappears. Similarly, the inner parts of the human body, for example inner parts of mouth, or nose or inner ears become Pak, after the najasat has disappeared. But the internal najasat, like the blood from the gums or the teeth, does not make inner mouth najis. Similarly, any external thing which is placed internally in the bo dy, does not become najis when it meets with the internal najasat. So if the dentures come in contact with blood from other teeth, it does not require rinsing. Of course, if it contacts najis food, it must be made Pak with water.

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223. * If food remains between the teeth, and blood emerges within the mouth, the food will not be najis if it comes in contact with that blood.

224. * Those parts of the lips and the eyes which overlap when shut, will be considered as inner parts of the body, and they need not be washed when external najasat reaches them. But a part of which one is not sure whether it is internal or external, must be washed with water if it meets with external najasat.

225. If najis dust settles on a cloth or carpet, but is shaken off and thereafter, something wet touches that cloth etc. that thing will not become najis.

10. Istibra of an Animal which Eats Najasat
226. * The dung and urine of an animal which is habituated to eating human excrement, is najis, and it could be made Pak by subjecting it to "Istibra", that is, it should be prevented from eating najasat, and Pak food should be given to it, till such time that it may no more be considered an animal which eats najasat.
As a recommended precaution, the following animals should be prevented from eating najasat for the period specified:
  • Camel for 40 days
  • Cow for 20 days
  • Goat/Sheep for 10 days
  • Water-fowl for 7 or 5 days
  • Domestic hen for 3 days The period specified should be completed, even if the animals cease to be considered as eaters of najasat earlier than that.

    11. Disappearance of a Muslim
    227. * When body, dress, household utensil, carpet or any similar thing which has been in the possession of a Muslim becomes najis, and thereafter that Muslim disappears, the things in question can be treated as Pak, if one believes that he may have was hed them. But the recommended precaution is that he should not take them as Pak, except with the following conditions:
  • That Muslim should be believing in the najasat of an object which made his body or dress najis. For example, if his dress with its wetness touches
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    a Kafir, and he does not believe a Kafir to be najis, his dress will not be deemed Pak after his disap pearance.
  • That Muslim should know that his body or dress has touched a najis thing.
  • That the man should have been seen using that thing for a purpose which requires it being Pak. For example, he should have been seen offering prayers with that dress.
  • There should be an expectation that the Muslim knows that the condition for the act he wants to perform is to be Pak. For example, if he does not know that the dress of one who offers prayers should be Pak, and he offers prayers with a najis dress, that dress cannot be considered to be Pak.
  • The Muslim should be conscious of the difference between najis and Pak, and that he should not be careless about it. If he is careless, his things will not be considered Pak.

    228. * If a person is certain or satisfied that a thing which was najis has become Pak, or if two just persons testify showing why it is Pak, then that thing is Pak. And similarly, when a person who possesses the najis thing, reliably says that it has become Pak, or when a Muslim has washed the najis thing with water, even if it may not be known whether or not he has washed it properly, the thing will be considered Pak.

    229. If a person undertakes to wash and make Pak the dress of another person and confirms having washed it, and if the other person is satisfied with what he is told, the dress is Pak.

    230. * If a person is in such a mental state that he can never be certain about a najis thing becoming Pak, he should follow the method used by the common people.

    12.Flowing out of Blood of a Slaughtered Animal in Normal Quantity
    231. As stated in rule 98, if an animal is slaughtered in accordance with the rules prescribed by Islam, and blood flows out of its body in normal quantity, the blood which still remains in the body of the animal is Pak.

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    232. * The above rule is applicable only to an animal whose meat is halal to eat, and does not apply to an animal whose meat is haraam. In fact, as a recommended precaution, it does not apply to the haraam parts of the body of an animal, whose meat is halal to eat.

    Rules About Utensils
    233. If a utensil is made of the hide of a dog, or a pig or the dead animal (not slaughtered lawfully), it is haraam to eat or drink anything from that utensil, if its najasat is caused by wetness. Also, that utensil should not be used for Wudhu and Ghusl, and for other purposes for which only Pak things should be used. And the recommended precaution is that the skin of a dog, or pig or a dead animal, should not at all be used, even if it is not in the form of a utensil.

    234. It is haraam to use gold and silver vessels for eating and drinking purposes, and as an obligatory precaution, their general use is also haraam. However, it is not haraam to have them in possession as item of decoration, although it is better to avoid them as a precautionary measure. Similarly, it is not haraam to manufacture gold and silver vessels, or to buy and sell them for possession or decoration, but it is better to avoid.

    235. * If the clip of a tea-glass (istakaan) made of gold or silver is classified as a utensil, it will be equivalent to a tea-glass made of gold or silver (and it will be haraam to use it for drinking purposes). And if it (the clip) is not classified as utensil, there is no harm in using it.

    236. * There is no harm in using vessels which are gold-plated or silver-plated.

    237. There is no harm in using a utensil which is made of alloy mixed with gold and silver, if the proportion of alloy is such that the utensil cannot be said to be made of gold or silver.

    238. * If a person transfers food from the utensil made of gold or silver into another utensil, he can eat in or from it, provided that the later utensil is not considered as part of the package.

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    239. There is no harm using the tip of the pipe used in Huqqa, or the scabbard of a sword, or knife, or the frame of the Holy Qur'an made of gold or silver. However, the recommended precaution is that the receptacles of perfume, or surma, or opium made of gold or silver should not be used.

    240. There is no harm in eating or drinking from gold and silver utensils, if one is helpless and has no alternative, but he should not eat or drink to his fill.

    241. There is no harm in using a utensil, about which it is not known whether it is made of gold or silver, or something else.
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