THE ISLAMIC HIJAB - PART V
SEEK PERMISSION TO ENTER
ON THREE OCCASIONS
These three verses mention two or three exceptions. One of the exception is in the first verse which we had previously
1. Quran, 24 : 58-60.
related, "If you enter houses, say salam ...". No one has the right to enter the house of another without first announcing one's entrance and receiving permission; even a child has no right to enter the house of his mother or sister without permission. It is only the husband who does not need to announce his arrival. Home is a place where a woman considers to be her place of retreat and she is usually dressed in such a way that she does not want anyone but her husband to see her as such.
In the past the doors of homes were kept open and they were not considered to be places of retreat. The places of retreat were particular only to the rooms. It can be said that the ruling which previously related to rooms now rules for a house. It is customary now to have the door or the home closed and a woman may even consider her courtyard to be part of her place of retreat unless others have view into it.
We have previously mentioned this ruling. There is no exception to it, whether a son is going to his mother's house or a daughter is going to her father's hosue, they must receive permission to enter the part that is considered to be a retreat.
We had another issue in the next verse about people who are exceptions so that women do not need to cover before them. The amount of hijab that is required for people who are not mahram, their fathers ... or their women or "owned ones" or children ... and, then we discussed whether ti meant only male slaves or included female slaves as well. We pointed out that the external form of the verse reveals those who are the exceptions and traditions, in particular, Shi'ite traditions, have said that they are the male servants. But the other problem is that among the Islamic scholars, perhaps, there are very few people who have issued an edict saying that male slaves are mahram within the home. That is, the ruling is that it is not necessary for women to cover themselves before them because they are taken as mahram but the external meaning of the verse is clear and the traditions say the same.
In these verses there are other exceptions about what the right hand owns and children because we had the exception that in the place of retreat of women, every one, except her husband, must seek permission to enter. Here two other groups are mentioned as exceptions to this rule other than at the special times mentioned in the Holy Quran; first is "owned ones" and second are children before they reach puberty.
Now, as to "owned ones" let no one think that because there are no longer any slaves, there is no need to discuss this. No. We do not want to mention a duty of a slave here, but Islamic precepts in regard to slaves should be understood and if a person wants to reason from the verse itself, he can expand this ruling to include other than slaves.
As we pointed out, the verse said no one has the right to enter the home of another without first announcing it except those who are your slaves and children who have not yet reached puberty. These people are exception to seeking permission to enter a woman's retreat unless it occurs at the three speical times mentioned.
The three times mentioned are times when a woman is most often not wearing her normal clothes. One of the three times is before the dawn prayer when she has first woken up and has not yet fully dressed. They have no right to enter without announcing their entrance. Another time is the middle of the day when it is very hot, when you come home nd take off your clothes. They must seek permission to enter. The third is at night ater the night prayer which is the time for going to sleep.
In sum up, at times other than when a woman normally takes off her clothes, and is a time of rest, they can enter without permission. Then the verse itself analyzes this. If you recall, two weeks ago, we mentioned these exceptions other than the husband; perhaps a father can also be included who is mahram, a women's father-in-law and perhaps one's husband's son for which exceptions exist for covering various areas such as the
face and hands. It is not the criterion that, at other times, are stimulating areas and a man whose eyes fall on the body of a woman or on her face presents a danger. But if we extend these criteria further, we will create difficulties. We have mentioned this.
Here, there is one sentence which shows why these are exceptions because it is their work to 'move about attending to each other's. A child who has not yet reached puberty, who is within the house, is continuously moving about. If the child has to continuously seek permission, it is very difficult. Thus, only at the special times should these exceptions seek permission.
And, now another issue. In the verse, "owned ones", are the female or male slaves? We said male slaves. In this area, again the tradition have said this. In Kafi it has been recorded from Imam Sadiq, "What is meant is male slaves who do not have to seek permission except at the three times." Not female slaves because women are mahram to women. They asked, "Do women need to seek permission at these three times?" He said, "No. It is not necessary."
There is another tradition in which it is questionable if female slaves are meant but male slaves are clearly indicated.
It can be said that men are meant and not women in this verese because here the pronoun is exclusive to the masculine. They are the slaves of these women and we could say, perhaps, only women are meant but the here the masculine plural appears. That is, those men who are your slaves do not need to get permission other than at those three times. Thus they are clearly mahram and does this abrogate the other? No. Whatever is said in the other verse that male slaves and children who have not reached puberty are mahram is the same here. These two, then, correspond and this also corresponds with was has appeared in the traditions, in particular, Shi'ite traditions. Of course, they do not conform with the religious edicts.
Let us move beyond this. Those who are "owned ones" must
not seek permission and also sons who have reached puberty except at three times. The masculine plural is referred to and not women. Their work is to move about attending to each other; thus does God make clear the signs for you ...".
"When your children reach puberty' they must always seek permission to enter. Thus does God make clear His signs for you.
The two exceptions which we had, one was in relation to male slaves and the other in relation to children who have not attained puberty. The third exception is 'such women as are menopausic'.
In the previous section, it was said that women had to cover themselves and not reveal their adornment except that which is outward and what is meant is the face and hands. In the next sentence they are told to cover their necks with their scarf except, women who are menopausic.
"SUCH WOMEN AS ARE MENOPAUSIC ..."
If we compare this verse to the previous one, it is clear that women have two layers of clothes, the outer and the inner. In the former verse, "when you take off your outer garments" is again referred to here. Thus a woman can take off her outer garment. Beyond this? No. They can take off their outer clothes but they must not draw attention to themselves.
Even though all of these exceptions exist, it is better if a women does not show herself to a man. It is better if a man does not look at a woman. These exceptions are because of needs that may arise Islam is not a religion which wants to cause fault or blame to its followers. When there is no necessity or need or difficulty, it is better to observe hijab.
As I mentioned before, perhaps there is a class that men and women want to attend. Both will benefit from it but they do not need to be in the same room. It is better if they are in separate rooms. Here, at the same time that woman has reached a certain
age is an exception, it is still better if they do not, for instance, take off their outer garment and they remain like other women. God is knowing.
IN PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE
WIVES OF THE HOLY PROPHET
One verse relates to the particularities of the wives of the Holy Prophet. Before Islam, in the houses of the people, according to the custom, there was no hijab. There was complete intermixing of men and women. The people were, then, not accustomed to announcing their entrance. They would enter the home of the Holy Prophet unannounced and go through all of the rooms and if they were invited to dinner, it would be hours before they left. They would stretch out their legs and begin to hold long discussions. This bothered the Holy Prophet and he was embarrassed to ask them to leave. Then verse 33:53 was revealed: "And when you ask (his wives) for something you want, ask them from behind a curtain (hijab). That makes for greater purity for your hearts and theirs."1
Whenever the 'ulama referred to the verse on the hijab they meant this verse and the word hijab itself means screen or curtain. The word hijab here has nothing to do with the word hijab which we refer to when we say women should cover such and such parts of their body. Thus this has nothing to do with our discussion and refers to people who should not enter the house of the Holy Prophet without announcing their entrance and if they want something, they should take it from behind a curtain.
1. Quran, 33 : 53.
THE VERSES ON THE JILBAB
All of the commentators agree that there were certain events occuring to which this verse is related to in Madinah. There was a group of hypocrites and corrupts who bothered people and in particular, slave women and others. Then when they were asked why they were doing this, they said: "We thought they were slave women."
Slave women are among the exceptions. They do not need to cover themselves from non-mahram men and if they had outer garments, they did not wear it in a way to cover their hair. Very often Muslim women would walk down the street at night and this corrupt group of hypocrites would bother them. When they were caught, they would always use the excuse that they thought the women were slave women.
The verse was revealed for them to cover themselves and in this way be recognized so the corrupts and hypocrites would not bother them or at least would no longer have that excuse.
Some have commented on this verse in a different way. They say that it means that the women be recognized that they are not this way (to be bought and sold) because they say if a woman maintains her honour and respect and has a serious attitude about
1. Quran, 39 : 59-60.
herself, even corrupts will show her respect. If they know that she is not among the other women and if she conduct herself with dignity, they will no bother her.
Thus this verse refers to particular events which had occurred (and they are told to make their clothes a sign so that they be recognized apart from slave women). Then the verse threatens those who bother others, that if they do not resist, "We will set you against them".
Now let us see what limits were set so that they are recognized as being separate from the slave women. The verse says: "draw your outer garments close to them": How close? They said they must cover their heads, and some even said their chins so that this be their sign of difference with slave women.
It is not very clear exactly what the jilbab looked like. In the Munjid it says it is a loose flowing dress. If it were a dress, this verse would not then be telling them to cover their hair. Raghib Isfahani in the Mufridat, which is a very reliable book on words, and it has defined the words of the Holy Quran very well, says that it means both dress and scarf.
There is a tradition from Imam Riza, about women who are beyond a certain age, from which it becomes clear that it was something which covered the head. He said they may put aside the jilbab there is no problem if one looks at the hair of an old woman. Here it is not clear if the jilbab covered the hair and head.
In another tradition it would appear that the jilbab differed from the khamur but the difference is not clear. Perhaps it was larger. Imam Sadiq was asked what these woman can take off and he said their jilbab and khamur, i.e., 'their outer garment and scarf'.
There are two points which can be made use of in this verse. The first is that this verse adds nothing more to the verse from Suran Nur. Why? Because the verse refers to particular events which were occurring at that time, not a total ruling for all times
and secondly, the verse just says to draw the jilbab closer to themselves.
THE PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN
MEETING AND GATHERINGS
The world today, in the name of freedom of women, and, more directly, the freedom of sexual relations, has only served to corrupt the morale of the youth. Instead of this freedom helping to develop the amazing potentialities which exist within every human being, it wastes human energies and talents, in a way which did not exist in the past. Women have left their homes, but for what? For the cinema, the beach, the streets, and evening entertaiment! In the name of freedom, women today have destroyed their homes without having effectively cultivated schools or universities or places of work.
As a result of this unrestrainedness and ignoring of any
restrictions, the educational efficiency of young people, in general, has decreased. Young people run away from school and education, and sexual crimes have increased at enormous rates. The cinema market is doing a brisk business and the pockets of capitalists who deal in cosmetics are overflowing.
The second point is that in spite of the dangers which result from the breaking of the barriers of sexual modesty, the Divinely bestowed religious precepts of purity have not been heeded by them, as they guide ummah towards moderation, far from any extremity. To the point that women are not drawn towards corruption, the Islamic precepts do not prevent her active participation in society. In some cases, it is even obligatory that she should participate, like in the hajj rituals which is equally obigatory upon men and women. No husband has the right to prevent it.
As we know, it is not obligatory for women to participate in jihad unless a city or an area of Muslims has been attacked and the jihad had a totally defensive state, the jihad becomes obligatory on women as well. Otherwise, it is not obligatory. Even so, the Holy Prophet gave some women permission to participate in the battles to help the soldiers and the wounded. There are many stories of this in the history of Islam.1
It is not obligatory upon women to participate in the congregational ritual prayers but if they go it becomes obligatory upon them to participate and not to leave.2
It is not obligatory for women to participate in the Eid ritual prayers but they are not forbidden from participating. It is disapproved for women of great respect or beauty to participate
1. "Sahih Muslim", vol.5, p.196-97, "Sunane Abu Dawud", vol.2, p.17, Jama' Tirmizi, p.247.
2. "Wasa'il", vol.1, p.456.
in such prayers.1
The Holy Prophet cast lots among his wives and would take them with him on his journeys and some of his companions also took their wives.2
The Holy Prophet would accept the allegiance o women but he did not shake hands with them. He would order a bowl of water to be brought. He would put his hand in the water and order the women offerring her allegiance to do the same thing. She was considered as haveing pledged her allegiance.3 Ayesha said that, throughout his lifetime the Holy Prophet who never touched the hands of a woman who was not mahram.
He did not forbid women from participatin in burial ceremonies although he also did not feel it was necessary. He preferred that they do not participate although, under special circumstances, they did so and possibly participated in the recitation of the ritual prayers. It has been narrated in our tradition that when Zaynab, the oldest daughter of the Holy Prophet died, Hazrat Zahra, peace be upon her, and other Muslim women came and recited the ritual prayer for her.4
According to Shi'ite traditions, it is disapproved for young girls to participate in mourning ceremonies, Sunni scholars have recorded from Umm 'Atiyyah who said that the Holy Prophet encouraged women not to participate in mourning processions but he did not forbid it.5
Asma' the daughter of Yazid Ansari, was selected by the
1. "Wasa'il", vol.1, p.474.
2. "Sahih Bukhari", vol.7, p.437.
3. All historians and commentators have recorded this. Historians recorded it in recalling the events of the victory of Makkah and commentator have referred to it when commenting upon the verse "O Prophet! when believing women come to you to take the oath of allegiance ... (60:12)". Also "Kafi", vol.5, p.526.
4. "Wasa'il", vol.1, p.159.
5. "Sahih", Muslim, vol.3, p.47, Bukhari, vol.2 p.94, Sunan, vol.2, p.180.
women of Madinah as their representative to go the Holy Prophet tell him of the complaints of the women of Madinah and receive his asnwer. When Asma' entered, the Holy Prophet was seated among a group of the companions. She said: "May my mother and father be sacrificed for you. I am represetative of the women of Madinah to you. We, women, say that God Almighty sent you as a Prophet to both men and women. You are not just the Prophet of men. We women also found faith in you and God Almighty. We women sit in our homes meeting the sexual needs of men. We nourish your children in our wombs but we see that all of the sacred duties, great and valuable deeds which are rewarded by God, are given to men alone and we are deprived. Men are allowed to gather together, they visit the sick, they participate in the jihad in Allah's Way. Whereas when a man goes on the hajj or the jihad, it is us women who stay behind and protect his property. We weave cloth for his clothes, we train his children. How is it that we are partners of you men in difficult tasks but when it comes to sacred duties and deeds for which God gives spiritual reward we are not partners and we are deprived of all of them?"
The Holy Prophet looked at the companions and asked: "Have you ever heard a woman speak so well, so logically and so clearly about religious affairs?"
One of the companions said, 'I do not think that these words are from this woman herself.'
The Holy Prophet, paying no attention to what the man said, turned to Asma' and said, 'Woman! Try to understand what you are saying and explain to the women who sent you. Do you think that every men receives spiritual rewards and virtues for doing these things and women are deprived of them? No. This is not so. If a woman takes good care of her family and husband and does not allow the pure environment of her home to become
polluted by the dust of darkness, she will receive spiritual rewards, virtues and successes equivalent to all of the work that men do."
Asma' was a woman of faith. Her requests and those of the women who thought like her came from the depths of their faith, not out of lust or greed which we most often see today. She and the women who sent her were concerned that perhaps the duties which they performed had no value and that all of the sacred duties were particular to men. She and the women she represented wanted quality, but in what? In implementing the divine commands and carrying out their religious duties. That which never entered their minds was a confrontation to gain individual egoistical desires in the name of a 'right'. Thus when she heard the response of the Holy Prophet, her face lighted up with pleasure and she returned in great happiness to her friends.1
As to the participation of women in these things, the traditions contradict one another. Some completely forbid it, but the author of wasa'il, who was himself a reliable transmitter, nothing the total collection of Islamic traditions, transmitter, said, "It can be concluded from the totality of Islamic traditions that it is permisible for women to leave their homes to participate in mourning ceremonies or to see to the right of the people2 or to attend a funeral procession and to participate in these gatherings just as Fatimah, peace be upon her, and the wives of the infallible Imams, peace be upon them, participated in these kinds of ceremonies. Thus, the totality of the traditions rule that we ignore that which forbids it.3
1. Asal al-Ghabah, vol.5, p.338-399.
2. See "Bihar al-Anwar", vol.11, p.118 where a tradition is recorded from "Kafi" from Musa ibn Ja'far, peace be upon him, who said, "My father, Imam Ja'far, peace be upon him, would sent my mother and his mother to attend to the needs of the poor of Madinah."
3. "Wasa'il", vol.1, p.72.
The Holy Prophet allowed his wives to leave their homes to meet their needs they had and do what they had to do.
It is recorded that the Holy Prophet ordered the door to the mosque for women be separate from the men's door so that men and women would not be obliged to go and come through the same door. He forbid men from using that door.1
It is also recorded that the Holy Prophet commanded that after te night prayer, women be allowed to leave the mosque first so that they would not have to mix together.2 In order that no contacts prevail, he said that women should walk down the side of the street and men, down the middle.3
It is because of this that religious jurisprudents issue edicts that it is disapproved for men and women to mix together, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabatabaie Yazdi wrote, "It is truth if a person were to look at Islam with an open mind, he or she would confirm that the way of Islam is the way of moderation. At the same time that Islamic precepts have provided the greatest extent of precautions to protect the purity and sanctity of sexual relations, in no way do they prevent the human talents of women from blossoming. As a matter of fact, these precepts provide for both, the spirit to remain healthy and for family relations to be more intimate and serious as well as better preparing men and women for a healthy social environment, far from any extremes.4
1. "Sunan", vol.1, p.106.
2. "Kafi", vol.5, p.519.
3. "Sunan", vol.2, p.658.
4. "Urwatul Wusqa" chapter', issue 49.