Kinds of Blood Seen by WomenIstihaza
One type of blood which is seen by women is called istihaza and a woman in that state is called mustahaza.
398. Istihaza is usually yellowish and cold and is emitted without gush or irritation and is also not thick. It is, however, possible that at times the colour of the blood may be red or dark, and it may also be warm and thick and may be issued with gush and irritation.
399. There are three kinds of istihaza viz. slight (Qalila), medium (Mutawaassita) and excessive (Kathira). Explanation is given below:
I. Little Blood (Qalila)
If the blood remains on the surface of the wool or pad etc., (placed by a woman on her private part) but does not penetrate into it, the istihaza is called qalila.
II. Medium Blood (Mutawassita)
If the blood penetrates into the cotton (or pad etc.), even partially, but does not soak the cloth tied on the outer side, the istihaza is called mutawassita.
III. Excessive Blood (Kathira)
If the blood penetrates through the cotton, soaking it and the cloth (etc.) around it, the istihaza is called kathira.
Rules of Istihaza
400. * In the case of little istihaza a woman should perform separate Wudhu every prayer and should, as a recommended precaution, wash or change the pad. And if some blood is found on the outer part of her private parts she should make it Pak with water.
401. * In the case of Mutawassita,is an obligatory precaution for a woman to make one Ghusl everyday for her daily prayers, and she should
act accordingly to the rules of little Istihaza as explained in the foregoing rule. If the state of Istihazaan before or just at the time of Fajr prayers, she should do Ghusl before offering Fajr prayers. If she does not do Ghusl intentionally or forgetfully, she should do Ghusl before Zuhr and Asr prayers. And if she misses even that, then she should do Ghusl before praying Maghrib and Isha. This she would do regardless of whether bleeding continues or stops.
402. * In the case of excessive bleeding the woman should change, as an obligatory precaution, the cotton or pad tied to her private parts or make it Pak with water. It is also necessary that she should do one Ghusl for Fajr prayers, one for Zuhr and Asr prayers and once again for Maghrib and Isha prayers. She should offer Asr prayers immediately after Zuhr prayers and if she allowed any lapse of time between them, she should do Ghusl again for Asr prayers. Similarly if she keeps any time gap between Maghrib and Isha prayers, she should do Ghusl again for Isha prayers.
All these rules apply when bleeding is so excessive that it continues soiling the pad etc. But if it takes longer to soil the cotton or pad, and a woman has enough time to pray one or more Namaz in between, then, as per obligatory precaution, she would change the pad or wash it to make Pak and then do Ghusl only when the cloth covering the pad or cotton is fully soaked.
For example, if a woman praying Namaz of Zuhr finds out that the cloth is fully soaked again before the prayers of Asr, she would do Ghusl for Asr prayers.
And if she finds that the flow of blood is slow enough to allow two or more prayers to be offered before the cotton or cloth is totally soiled with blood, there will be no need for Ghusl before the ensuing prayer. For example, if she finds that there is enough time to offer even Maghrib and Isha prayers, before the cloth is fully soaked, she would pray Maghrib and Isha without Ghusl.
In every case, the Ghusl in excessive Istihazadoes not require Wudhuafter it.
403. If istihaza blood is seen before the time for prayers has set in, and the woman has not performed Wudhu or Ghusl for that bleeding, she should perform Wudhu or Ghusl at the time of prayers, even though she may not be mustahaza at that time.
404. * A woman whose Istihaza is medium should first do Ghusl and then
Wudhu, as per obligatory precaution. But if a woman with excessive Istihaza wishes to do Wudhu, she should do so before the Ghusl.
405. When a woman who had little Istihaza finds out after Fajr prayers that her Istihaza has developed into medium one, she will have to do Ghusl for Zuhr and Asr prayers. And if that change occurs after Zuhr, Asr prayers, then she will do a Ghusl for Maghrib and Isha prayers.
406. * If a woman finds out after Fajr prayers that her little or medium Istihaza had developed into an excessive one, and remained in that state, then she should follow the directives given in rule no. 402 in respect of Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers.
407. * As explained in rule 402, a woman in excessive Istihaza must ensure that there is no time gap between Ghusl and the prayers. Therefore, if such a gap occurs because of doing Ghusl earlier, then that Ghusl will be void, and the woman will have to do Ghusl again. This rule applies to those also who are in medium Istihaza.
408. * Apart from the rules pertaining to the daily prayers which have been explained earlier, a woman in little and medium Istihaza must do Wudhu for all other prayers, Wajib or Mustahab. But if she desires to repeat, as a precautionary measure, the daily prayers which she has already offered or if she wishes to offer once again with congregation the prayers which she had offered individually, she should perform all the acts which have been mentioned with regard to Istihaza. In the case of Namaz of Ihtiyat, "forgotten sajdahs", "forgotten tashahud" which are performed immediately after the prayers it is not necessary for her to follow the rules of Istihaza. Similarly, no rules of Istihaza will apply for performing Sajda-e-Sahv at any time.
409. After the bleeding of a mustahaza woman has stopped, she should follow the rules of Istihaza only for the first subsequent prayers which she may offer. For further prayers which follow, the rules of Istihaza would not be necessary.
410. * If a woman does not know what kind of Istihaza she has, she should insert into herself some cotton and wait a while to ascertain. And
when she knows which kind of Istihaza it is she would follow the rules prescribed. And, if she is sure that the type of Istihaza will not change by the time she stands for her prayers she may carry out the test before the time for prayers sets in.
411. If a mustahaza woman starts her prayers without making any investigation, but her intention is to obey the orders of Allah and act according to her duty then her prayers are valid. For example, if her Istihaza was little, and she acted according to its rules, her prayers will be correct and valid. But if she did not have the intention of obeying Allah or following the rules, her prayers would be invalid. For example, she followed the rules of little Istihaza while in actual fact she was in the medium one, her prayers would be invalid.
412. If a mustahaza woman cannot discern about her Istihaza she should act according to the minimum certitude. For example, if she does not know whether her Istihaza is little or medium she should follow the rules which are prescribed for little Istihaza. And if she does not know whether her Istihaza is medium or excessive she should perform the rules prescribed for the medium Istihaza. But, if she knows which of the three kinds of Istihaza she has had previously, then she should act according to the rules for that kind of Istihaza.
413. If at the time of its initial appearance the blood of Istihaza remains within the interior of the body and does not come out, it does not nullify the Wudhu and Ghusl already performed by the woman. And if it comes out, it nullifies the Wudhu and Ghusl even if its quantity be very small.
414. * If a mustahaza woman examines herself after Namaz and finds no blood, she can say other prayers with the same Wudhu, even if she knows that the blood would reappear.
415. * If a mustahaza woman knows that since the time she has engaged herself with Wudhu or Ghusl blood has not come out of her body, she can defer offering prayers for as long as she knows she will remain in that pure state.
416. * If a mustahaza woman knows that before the time for prayers comes to an end, she will become totally Pak, or if she knows that at certain time, bleeding would stop for the time required for offering prayers she should wait and offer prayers when she is Pak.
417. * If a Mustahaza, after having done Wudhu and Ghusl, finds that the bleeding has ceased, and she feels that if she delays the prayers she will become fully Pak, within the time required for Wudhu, Ghusl and Namaz, she should delay the prayers, and offer them after performing fresh Wudhu and Ghusl when she has become fully Pak. But if time for prayers is limited, it will not be necessary for her to perform Wudhu and Ghusl. She should offer prayers with the Wudhu and Ghusl which she already has.
418. * When a mustahaza woman whose bleeding has been excessive becomes fully Pak, she should do Ghusl. However, if she knows that no blood was seen after having Ghusl for the previous prayers, it is not necessary for her to do Ghusl again. As for medium Istihaza, it is not necessary to do Ghusl after bleeding has stopped.
419. * Mustahaza women, with little, medium or excessive bleeding, should commence their prayers immediately after having acted according to their respective rules, except in the situations described in rules 403 and 415. But to recite Adhan and Iqamah before Namaz or performing Mustahab acts like Qunut etc, will have no objection.
420. * If a mustahaza woman who is required to allow no time gap between Wudhu or Ghusl and her prayers, does not act accordingly, she would make Wudhu or do Ghusl again and then pray without any delay.
421. * If the blood of Istihaza has a swift flow and does not stop, and if stoppage of blood is not harmful to her, she should try to prevent the blood from coming out after Ghusl. And if she ignores doing so, and the blood comes out, she should offer prayers all over again if she had already prayed. Moreover, it is a recommended precaution that she repeats the Ghusl.
422. * If blood does not stop at the time of Ghusl the bath is in order. But, if during the Ghusl the medium Istihaza becomes excessive it will be necessary for her to start Ghusl all over again.
423. For a Mustahaza woman who is fasting, it is a recommended precaution that she prevents the blood from issuing out of the body, throughout the day, as far as possible.
424. * It is widely held that the fast of a woman whose Istihaza is excessive will be valid only if in the night preceding the day on which she intends to fast she does Ghusl for the prayers of Maghrib and Isha, and also does Ghusl during day time which are obligatory for the daily prayers. But most likely, the validity of her fasting does not depend on the Ghusl. Similarly, the validity of a woman fasting during medium Istihaza does not depend on the Ghusl.
425. * If a woman becomes mustahaza after Asr prayers and does not do Ghusl till sunset her fast will undoubtedly be in order.
426. If a woman in little Isithaza finds out before starting the prayers that her bleeding has become excessive or medium, she should perform the rules prescribed for medium or excessive Istihaza as mentioned above. And if the medium Istihaza becomes excessive she should follow the rules prescribed for excessive Istihaza. And in case she has done Ghusl for medium Istihaza it would not suffice, and she should do Ghusl again for excessive Istihaza.
427. * If the medium Istihaza becomes excessive while she is already in Namaz, she should break the prayers and do Ghusl for excessive Istihaza and also perform other relevant acts and repeat the same prayers. And on the basis of recommended precaution she should perform Wudhu before Ghusl. And if she does not have time for Ghusl it is necessary that she should perform tayammum instead of Ghusl. And if she finds that no time is left even for tayammum then she should, on the basis of precaution, not break the prayers and complete the same in that very condition. It will be necessary for her to offer Qadha later. Similar rules will apply if during the Namaz her little Istihaza becomes medium or excessive, she will have to discontinue her Namaz and follow the rules of medium or excessive Istihaza, whichever be applicable.
428. * If the blood stops during Namaz and the mustahaza. woman does
not know whether or not it has also stopped internally, and if after her prayers she understands that bleeding had totally stopped, and she has sufficient time at her disposal to offer prayers again in the state of purity, it will be an obligatory precaution for her to act according to the rules applicable to her and pray again.
429. * If the excessive Istihaza reduces to medium Istihaza, the Mustahaza should perform the rules prescribed for excessive Istihaza for the first prayers and then medium Istihaza for the later prayers. For example, if excessive Istihaza becomes medium before Zuhr prayers she should perform Wudhu and do Ghusl for Zuhr prayers; and for the Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers she should perform only Wudhu. However, if she does not do Ghusl for Zuhr prayers and has time for Asr prayers only she should do Ghusl for Asr prayers. And if she does not do Ghusl for even Asr prayers she should do Ghusl for Maghrib prayers. And if she does not do Ghusl for that prayers as well and has just enough time for Isha prayers only, she should do Ghusl for Isha prayers.
430. * If the excessive Istihaza stops before every Namaz and starts coming again she should do Ghusl before each Namaz.
431. If the excessive Istihaza reduces to little, the mustahaza should follow for the first prayers the rules prescribed for excessive Istihaza; and for the later prayers the rules prescribed for little Istihaza. Similarly, if the medium Istihaza becomes little she should follow rules prescribed for medium Istihaza for the first prayers and those prescribed for little Istihaza for the later prayers.
432. If a mustahaza woman neglects any one of the obligatory rules, her Namaz will be void.
433. * If a woman who is in little or medium Istihaza wishes to engage in an act which requires Wudhu as a prerequisite, like touching the script of the Quran etc., she should make the Wudhu for the purpose. The Wudhu made specifically for Namaz would not be sufficient if she wishes to touch after the Namaz is over.
434. A mustahaza who has done her obligatory Ghusls can go into Masjid, pause for some time in it, and recite the verses of the Qur'an which contain obligatory Sajdah. It is also lawful for her husband to have sexual intercourse with her, though she may not have performed all the acts which are required before the prayers (e.g. changing the cotton and the pad). And it is not unlikely that these acts may be permissible even without Ghusl, but precaution is in avoiding them.
435. If a woman who is in the state of excessive or medium Istihaza wishes to recite, before the time of prayers, a verse of the Qur'an which contains an obligatory Sajdah or to enter a Masjid, she should, on the basis of recommended precaution, do Ghusl. And the same rule applies if her husband wishes to have sexual intercourse with her.
436. * Salatul Ayat (due to solar or lunar eclipse etc.) is obligatory for a mustahaza woman and she should follow all the rules which have been explained in relation with the daily prayers.
437. * When Namaz-e-Ayat becomes obligatory for a mustahaza woman at the time of daily prayers and she wishes to offer these two prayers one after the other she cannot, as per obligatory precaution, offer both of them with one Wudhu and one Ghusl.
438. * If a mustahaza woman wishes to offer Qadha prayers she should follow the same rules as are applicable to the prayers offered within time. And as a precaution, she will not consider the acts performed for prayers within time as sufficient for Qadha prayers.
439. * If a woman knows that the blood coming out of her body is not of a wound and cannot decide on it being the blood of hayz or nifas because of the absence of the properties defined by the Shariah, she should act according to the rules in respect of Istihaza. And if she doubts whether it is Istihaza or some other blood and it does not possess other signs she should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, follow the rules of Istihaza.
Menstrual discharge (Hayz) is a kind of blood which is normally discharged every month from the womb of women for a few days. When menses is discharged the woman is called Haaez'.
440. Menses is usually thick and warm and its colour is either black or red. It is discharged with a pressure and a little irritation.
441. * The blood seen by women after the age of 60 years is not classified as Hayz. And as per recommended precaution, women who are not from the clan of Quraish, if they see blood between the age of 50 and 60 years, having the same signs as those of Hayz, they should combine the 'dos' of mustahaza and 'don'ts' of Haaez.
442. * Blood seen by a girl who has not yet completed 9 years of her age will not be classified as Hayz.
443. It is quite possible for a pregnant woman or a breast feeding mother to see Hayz and the rules which apply to a non-pregnant woman also apply to a pregnant one, except that if a woman who has conceived sees blood with the usual signs of Hayz 20 days after the commencement of her habitual period then it is necessary for her, on the basis of precaution, to refrain from the acts which are forbidden to a Haaez and to perform the obligations of a mustahaza.
444. * If a girl does not know whether she has completed nine years of age or not and if she sees blood which does not bear any sign of Hayz, then that blood is definitely not Hayz. And if it has some semblance of Hayz, even then it is difficult to classify it as Hayz, unless one is absolutely sure. This absolute certitude will determine that she has completed her nine years.
445. * If a woman who is doubtful as to whether or not, she has completed 60 years of age, sees blood which she cannot decide whether it is of Hayz or not she should decide that she has not completed 60 years.
446. The period of Hayz is not less than 3 days and not more than 10 days
and if the period during which blood is discharged falls short of 3 days even by a small measure of time, that blood will not be considered as Hayz.
447. The blood of Hayz flows continuously for the first 3 days. Therefore, if blood is seen for 2 days and then interrupted for 1 day and then seen again for 1 day, it will not be Hayz.
448. In the initial stage, it is necessary that blood flows out, but it is not necessary to be seen flowing out during all the three days. It is sufficient for the blood to be internally present. So, if a woman is clean for a brief period during the first 3 days (as is common among all or some women) even then the blood discharged will be Hayz.
449. It is not necessary that a woman should have bleeding on the 1st and the 4th night, but it is essential that bleeding should not discontinue on the 2nd and the 3rd night. For example, if bleeding commences on the morning of the 1st day and continues till sunset on the 3rd day, it would be considered as Hayz. Similarly, if blood is seen from the middle of the 1st day and stops at the same time on the 4th day the same will apply.
450. * If a woman sees blood continuously for three days, and then it stops for a brief period before it is seen again, and if the total number of days in which blood was seen and in which it stopped does not exceed ten, then the days in which blood flowed will be counted as of Hayz, and the in between period of respite will be of obligatory precaution, during which she will do all that she should do when she is , and also refrain from all those acts which are forbidden to the Haaezs,.
451. If blood is seen for more than three days and less than ten days and she does not know whether the blood is of a sore or a wound or of Hayz, she should not treat it as Hayz.
452. If a woman sees blood about which she is unable to discern as to whether it is the blood of wound or of Hayz, she should continue to perform her acts of worship, except when her preceding condition was that of Hayz.
453. If a woman doubts whether the blood she has seen is of Hayz or Istihaza, she should treat it to be Hayz if it bears the properties of Hayz.
454. If a woman is unable to decide whether the blood she has seen is of Hayz or of virginity, she should examine herself i.e. she should insert cotton in herself and wait for some time. If she finds that only its sides have been stained with blood then it is virginal blood, and if the blood has soaked the entire piece of cotton then it is Hayz.
455. * If blood is seen for less than 3 days and then stops and starts again for 3 days the second blood will be Hayz but the first blood will not be considered as Hayz even if it was seen during the days of habit.
Rules for the Haaez
456. *. Acts which are Haraam for a woman who is in the state of Hayz:-
457. Sexual intercourse is Haraam also when a woman may not be very certain of being in the state of Hayz, but Shariah guides her to treat herself as such. So, when a woman sees blood for more than ten days, and, as will be explained later, she has to resort to the habit of her relatives for determining the period of Hayz, her husband will not be permitted to have sexual relations with her during those days.
458. * If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife when she is a Haaez, he should seek Divine forgiveness and the recommended precaution is that he should expiate by giving Kaffara. Rules regarding Kaffara will be mentioned later.
459. With the exception of actual sexual intercourse with a Haaez woman, there is no harm in all other forms of courting, wooing and kissing etc.
460. Kaffara for sexual intercourse with a Haaez is gold coins weighing 3.457 grams if carried out in the early days, 1.729 grams for the middle days and 0.865 grams for the final days of the period of Hayz. For example, if Hayz lasts for 6 days and her husband has sexual intercourse with her during the 1st and 2nd days or nights, he should pay gold weighing 3.457 grams, and during the 3rd and 4th days and nights he should pay gold weighing 1.729 grams and for the 5th and 6th days and nights he should pay gold weighing 0.865 grams.
461. If it is not possible to pay in gold coins, he should pay its equivalent value. And if the price of gold has undergone a change at the time he wishes to pay the Kaffara to the poor, as compared with the time when he had sexual intercourse, he should pay at the prevailing rate.
462. If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife in the first, second and third stage of Hayz he should give Kaffara for all the three, totalling 6.051 grams.
463. If a man has had repeated sexual intercourse with a Haeez woman he should pay Kaffara for each time.
464. If a man realises during the course of sexual intercourse that the woman has become Haaez, he should withdraw from her immediately, and if he does not do so the recommended precaution is that he should pay Kaffara.
465. If a man commits fornication with a Haaez woman or has sexual intercourse with a Haaez woman who is not his 'mahram' under the impression that she is his wife, the recommended precaution in this case, too, is that he should pay Kaffara.
466. If a man has sexual intercourse with a Haaez woman on account of ignorance or because of having forgotten the rule, he need not pay Kaffara.
467. If a man has sexual intercourse with a woman with the belief that she
is Haaez, but it transpires later that she was not Haaez, he need not pay Kaffara.
468. As will be explained in the rule relating to divorce, if a woman is divorced while she is in the state of Hayz, the divorce is void.
469. * If a woman says that she is Haaez, or claims to have become from Hayz, her statement should be accepted, provided that she is not known to be unreliable.
470. If a woman becomes Haaez while she is in Namaz, her Namaz will become void.
471. If a woman has doubt while offering prayers whether or not she has become Haaez, her prayer is in order. However, if she realises after offering prayers that she had actually become Haaez during the prayers, her prayers will be void.
472. After a woman becomes from Hayz it is obligatory for her to take bath for the prayers and other acts of worship which require Wudhu or Ghusl or tayammum. The rules for this Ghusl are the same as for the Ghusl of Janabat. And it is better that before Ghusl she should perform Wudhu.
473. * After a woman has become from Hayz, and before having done Ghusl the divorce given to her will be in order, and her husband can also have sexual intercourse with her. Though it is better to have sexual intercourse after the woman has washed herself. However, the recommended precaution is that the man should avoid having sexual intercourse with her before she has done Ghusl. However, until she has had Ghusl, other acts like staying in a Masjid and touching the writing of the Qur'an which were Haraam for her at the time of Hayz do not become Halal for her.
474. * If the woman does not have sufficient water for Wudhu and Ghusl, and if it is just enough for Ghusl only, she should do Ghusl, and it is better that she should perform tayammum in place of Wudhu. And if the water is sufficient for performing Wudhu only, she should perform Wudhu and perform tayammum instead of Ghusl. And if she does not have water for either
of them (i.e. for Ghusl or Wudhu) she should perform tayammum for Ghusl only. It is recommended that she does one more tayammum instead of Wudhu also.
475. * There is no Qadha for the Namaz which she left during her Hayz, but she should give Qadha for the obligatory fasts missed by her due to Hayz. This includes even those fasts which had been Wajib upon her on the fixed days because of Nadhr, but she could not keep because of Hayz.
476. * If the time for prayers sets in and a woman knows, or considers it probable, that if she delays offering prayers she will become Haaez, she should offer prayers immediately.
477. * If a woman delays offering prayers on exact time, allowing a lapse equal to the time required for offering one Namaz together with Wudhu or tayammum, and then she becomes Haaez, she will have to give Qadha for that Namaz. And in calculating the time, the extraneous things like praying quickly or slowly and other matters have to be considered individually. For example, if a woman who is not a traveller delays her Namaz of Zuhr, the Qadha will be obligatory for her if time eqhual to performing four rak'ats of prayers along with Wudhu or tayammum passes away from the exact time of Zuhr and then she becomes Haaez. And for one who is a traveller the passage of time equal to performing two rak'ats along with Wudhu or tayammum is sufficient.
478. If a woman is Pak from Hayz when the time for prayers is nearing its end, and has at her disposal time which suffices for Ghusl and performing one rak'at or more, she should offer the prayers and if she fails to do so she should offer its Qadha.
479. * If a Haaez finds that she does not have sufficient time for Ghusl, but she can offer prayers within the prescribed time after performing tayammum, the obligatory precaution is that she should offer that prayer with tayammum, and even if she did not offer that prayer it will be obligatory for her to offer its Qadha. Again, if tayammum is incumbent upon her due to other reasons, like, if water is harmful for her, she should perform tayam-
mum and offer that prayer, and if she does not offer it, she will have to give its Qadha.
480. If after becomingPak from Hayz, a woman doubts whether or not she has time left for the prayers, she should offer the prayers.
481. * If after becoming Pak from Hayz a woman does not offer prayers under the impression that she does not have time to make necessary preparations for prayers and to offer even one rak'at, but understands later that she did have time for the purpose, she should offer Qadha.
482. It is Mustahab for a Haaez that when it is time for Namaz, she makes herself Pak by washing away blood, and changing the pad. Then she should make Wudhu or tayammum, whichever is applicable, and sit at the place meant for prayers facing Qibla and busy herself in recital, supplication and salutations (Salawat).
483. It is Makrooh for a Haaez to read the holy Qur'an, or keep it with herself, or touch with any part of her body the space between its lines. It is also Makrooh for her to dye her hair with"henna" or any other thing like it.
Types of Women in Hayz
484. There are six types: