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Muawiyah's Innovations due to enmity with Imam ‘Ali (as)

Nassa’i and the other transmitters of hadith quote Sa‘id ibn Jabir saying that on the Day of ‘Arafah, Ibn ‘Abbas asked him, “Why is it that I do not hear the people saying the talbiyah (labbayk)?” Sa‘id ibn Jabir answered, “The people are afraid of Mu‘awiyah.” At that moment, Ibn ‘Abbas came out of his tent and defiantly said, “Labbayk! Allahumma Labbayk! (Here I am! O my Lord, here I am at Your service!).

I say this even though Mu‘awiyah hates it and becomes debased by it. O my Lord! Curse these people because they have forsaken and abandoned the Holy Prophet’s (S) way of life [Sunnah] because of their enmity towards ‘Ali.”17

On an authentic chain of transmission, Ibn Kathir narrates that Mu‘awiyah previously used to say the labbayk during the ‘isha’ prayers at ‘Arafah, but when he learned that ‘Ali also says the labbayk during the same ‘isha’ prayers, he immediately quit and abandoned it for the sake of opposing ‘Ali (as).18

Mu‘awiyah ibn Abu Sufiyan did this in spite of the fact that his actions were opposed to the clear tradition of the Holy Prophet (S). Fadl says, “The Holy Prophet (S) and I set off from ‘Arafat, and the Holy Prophet (S) kept saying the talbiyah until he started throwing stones at ‘Aqabah. He would say takbir (Allah-u Akbar) with every stone that he threw, but he did not stop saying the labbayk until he threw the last stone.”

Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah, Usamah and Ibn ‘Abbas also narrate that the Holy Prophet (S) always continued to say labbayk until he threw stones at ‘Aqabah.19

Notes:

17. Al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol. 2, p. 419, hadith 3993.

18. Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 139; the events that occurred in the year 60 AH.

19. Sahih Bukhari, vol. 2, p. 605, hadith 1602; Ibn Majah, Sunan, vol. 2, p. 1011, hadith 3039.

Adapted from: "The Uprising of Ashura and Responses to Doubts" by: "‘Ali Asghar Ridwani"