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Ethics

The Social and Educational Building

The Islamic ideology had played a big role on the level of the social and educational building, one can state it in the following points:

Firstly: Agitating the social feeling:

Man before Islam was concentrating upon himself in his social behavior, he sets up in his communications with others through the view point of his desires and interests, driven far away with his selfishness. He had fallen down in his social behavior to the degree of burying his newborn gird alive for fear from poverty and starvation. This matter required the divine intervention to rescue the innocent souls from this ugly social habit, Allah (be exalted) says: “Don’t kill your children for fear of poverty” 84

The thing which draws one’s attention mostly is that pre-Islamic man who was moving around himself and his interests had become after his interaction with the elixir of belief ready to sacrifice himself and every precious thing he has for the sake of his religion and society, the horizons of change in his spirit had reached the level at which he prefers the interests of his society to his own interests.

The level of altruism which the “Ansaar” (proponants) showed to the “Muhajireen” (emigrants) is very clear to every one, as they shared them with every thing they possessed even with their homes and wares, this level of alturism had not been restricted to some individuals, rather it represented a social phenomenon that the history of humanity had not witnessed its like at all. In this phenomenon Qur’an verses were revealed from Heaven blessing this compassion, commemorating a society qualified with it as an example of social coherence and brother hood…Allah (be exalted) Has said:

“It is for the poor who fled, those who were driven from their homes and their possessions, seeking grace of Allah and His pleasure and assisting Allah and His Apostle: these it is that are the truthful, and those who made their abode in the city and faith before them love those who have fled to them and don’t find in their hearts a need of what they are given, and prefer (them) before themselves though poverty may afflict them, and whoever is preserved from the niggard liness of his soul, these it is that are the successful ones” 85

Islam pulls down foundations in the social pre-Islamic building which consolidate the classical and tribal partition, which consisted of two basic classes, the class of the nobles and the class of slaves. The class of nobles should remain as such: wealths are collected at their hands! They monopolize stature and prominence.

Whereas those of the class of slaves should remain as self moving in the orbit of their Lord…so Islam tore out these bases and established other bases that put people equal in one level in the right of life and stature Allah (be exalted) says: “O you men! Surely we have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other, surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the most pious.” 86

So those people in the class of slaves had been released and enjoyed their right in life. Ammar, Selmaan, and Belaal rose to higher level than the class of nobles of Qureish which were still wandering in the aberrations of ignorance such as Alwaleed bin Almugheera, Hishaam Ibnal Hakam and Abbisuffian and the like…

Even funds and money are no more a monopoly to rich people in order to be wealthier, Allah (be exalted) Has said: “Whatever Allah has restored to His Apostle from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Apostle and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarers, so that it may not be a thing taken by turns among the rich of you, and whatever the Apostle gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you keep back, and be careful of your duty to Allah: surely Allah is severe in retributing evil” 87

The manners of growing the social feeling:

The Islamic ideology has grown the social feeling with the individual by several means some of them are as follows: 

A- awakening the feeling of responsibility to- wards others:

Through the Qur’anic emphasis on one’s responsibility towards himself and others such His saying: “And stop them for they shall be questioned” 88 and His saying: “ O you who believe! Save your selves and your families from a fire whose fuel are men and stones…” 89


And the prophet’s saying: “I am responsible and you are responsible as well” 90

And his saying (S.W.A.): “certainly everyone of you is in change and he is responsible for his subjects, the leader of people is in charge and he is responsible for his subjects; the man is in charge of his family and he is responsible for them; the woman is in charge of her husband’s house and his sons and she is responsible for them ...” 91

Ameeralmu’amineen (A.S.) says: “Fear Allah in his servants and cities as you are responsible for even lands and beasts..” 92

In a comparative view point to the social positive decrees we find that these decrees have been based on the individual responsibility in this life only and supporting this responsibility with a legal supporters such as depriving of freedom, or torture, or financial penalty or dismissal from work, or rewarding with money or upgrading in office… and the like, and with social supporters such as confidence and no confidence, and evaluation or disgracing.

As to the Islamic doctrine, it is not restricted to the individual’s responsibility for the society in which he lives in this life. Rather Islam develops in the individual the feeling of great responsibility to the Great Creator in another life. This prompts him to the voluntary restriction of his wishes and to have the social feeling towards others a part from the law, tradition or conscience because conscience may fail to confront the instincts when the religious belief is lost. Further, it is difficult to secure social observation in every place, where and at all times, so this inner observation can not be obtained except in the religious ideology.

Developing the spirit of sacrifice and altruism Qur’an has urged to practice altruism and celebrated the spirit of sacrifice which Moslems manifested.

So when Ali Ebna Abi Taalib (A.S.) slept on the bed of the prophet (S.W.A.) sacrificing himself for him preferring his life to his own, Allah celebrated this sacrificing unrivaled position so He revealed (And among men is he who sells himself to seek the contentment of Allah; and Allah is affectionate to the slaves” 93

Alfakhr Alraazi says “it is revealed in the concern of Ali Ibna Abi Taalib (A.S.) he slept in the bed of the prophet the night the prophet had left to the cave. It is narrated that when Ali (A.S.) slept in the bed of the prophet (S.W.A.) Gibraeil (A.S.) stood at his head and Michaeil at his legs and Gibraeil shouts: it is great! Who is like you the son of Abbi Taalib Allah boasts off you with His angels, then the verse was revealed”. 94

The prophetic bibliography introduced the excellent example in this concern. It is narrated that the prophet (S.W.A) had not satisfied for three successive days at all till he departed this world if he would like he could satisfy but he preferred other to himself” 95

The results of this prophetic behavior appeared clearly in the behavior of his progeny “Ahlilbait” (A.S.) who were following his procedure and walk in his steps and translate his ideals into real practice.

It is narrated from Mohammad bin Ka’ab Alqurzi that he said: I heard Ali Ibna Abi Taalib (A.S.) saying:

“I so often fasten a stone to my stomach because of hunger while my “Sadaqa” (i-e money I give to the poor people) reaches four thousands Dinaars” 96

All that because he preferred others to himself and preferred their interests to his own interests.

Abul Anwaar- a shirts seller- said: Ali Ibna Abi Taalib came to me with his boy he bought two shirts, then said to his servant “chose what you wish” he took one of them and Ali took the other and wore it” 97

One of the evidences of that big social change which the Islamic ideology in a short time could create is that:

A head of a sheep was presented to one of the prophet’s companions he said:

My brother Mr. X- is more in need for that than us he sent it to him, it continued to be sent by one to another till seven persons circulated it till finally it returned to the first person” 98

In this way the Islamic ideology educates the Moslem to have a social feeling especially one’s feeling towards others, so he exceeds the field of the self to a circle which is wider, it is the circle of the family. Then his concerns extend to include the circle of neighbor hood, then the inhabitants of his country, and then the circle of his nation, then it finally extends to include the whole humanity. 

Notes:

84. Alesra’a 17: 31.

85. Alhasher 59: 8-9.

86. Alhujoraat: 49: 13.

87. Alhashoor 59: 7.

88. Alsaffat: 37: 24.

89. Altehreem 66: 6.

90. Kenzelaummaal 5: 289.

91. Saheeh Moslem 3: 1459- Ketaab alemaarah- Daar Ehiaa elturaath pub. 1.

92. Nehjilbalagha: sermon 167.

93. Tefseer Majmaael Bayaan: 1: 174, Albakarah 2: 207.

94. Altafseer AlKabeer, Al fakhr Al Raazi: 5: 223.

95. Tenbeehel Khawaatir, Ameer Warram 1: 172, Eithar.

96. Assad el ghaabah, Ebnil atheer 4: 102/ 3783, Dar Ehii’a alturaathil Arabi.

97. Assad Alghabbah: Ebnil Atheer 4: 103.

98. Asbaab alnouzoul: Abbilhassan alnissaboori: 281, Enteshaaraat Alrezi, pub. Of A’alam Alkutub: 235.

Adapted from: "The Role of Ideology in Constructing The Human Being" by: "Ar-Risaleh Center"