Rafed English

Fabrication Through Inclusion

Sometimes the narrator may compose some addition to the hadith indeliberately, which was to the hadith indeliberately, which was considered by traditionists as inclusion (idraj). The mudraj tradition was a term used for a hadith having an addition that was not originally found in it. Scholars of hadith say that inclusion is of two kinds: Inclusion (idraj) in the isnad (chain of transmission) and inclusion in the text.

The text inclusion comes at the beginning of the hadith, like hadith of Abu Hurayrah that was reported by al-Khatib saying: The Messenger of Allah said: “Complete the ablution, woe be to those lagging behind from the Fire (hell)”. The words” complete (asbighu) the ablution” are included by Abu Hurayrah.

Idraj may occur also in the midst of the hadith like hadith of Faddalah reported by al-Nasa’i that the Prophet said: “I am a za’im (guarantor of paradise) – and za’im is hamil (undertaker) – for that who believes in me and struggles on the way of Allah, with a house in the gardens of heavens”. His saying: ‘and the za’im (guarantor) is the undertaker’ is included by him into the hadith.

In regard of the inclusion at the end of the hadith, it occurred in the eclipse hadith which was recorded in the Sahih that (the Prophet said): The sun and moon are verily two signs (marvels) among God’s signs (ayat). They never eclipse because of the death or life of anyone. When you see this, betake yourselves to remembrance of Allah and prayers (salat). Al-Ghazzali says that the reporting of this addition was not confirmed, so its utterer should be belied.

Adapted from: "Lights on the Muhammadan Sunnah" by: "Mahmud Ali Riyyah"

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