As for the obligatory prayers, it is well known between Muslims and even non-Muslims. Allah (swt) states “Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of specified times.”(3), The prophet (pbuh) stated “He is not from us who belittles his prayers…”(4) Imam Al-Baqir (a.s) stated when he was told about a man who abandoned his prayers “Subhann Allah! He abandoned his prayers! Abandoning prayers is a grave sin to Allah”(5)
As for Al-Nawafil or Al-Rawatib they are made of:
• Two rik'as before Fajr prayer that are prayed like Fajr prayer.
• Eight rik'as before Duhr prayer, consist of four two rik'a prayers like Fajr prayer.
• Eight rik'as before Asr prayer, consist of four two rik'a prayers like Fajr prayer.
• Four rik'as after Maghreb prayers, consist of two two rik'a prayers like Fajr prayer.
• Two rik'as after Isha prayers while sitting down.
• Eleven rik'as after midnight before Fajr prayer called Salat Al-Layl consist of four two rik'a prayers like Fajr prayer, while the last two rik'as are prayed as Shaf' prayer(6). Then a one rik'a prayer as Witr prayer(7), then you ask forgiveness for forty believers(8), ask forgiveness for yourself(9), state “hadha maqam al-ayidh bik min al-naar(10)”, state “al-afw(11)” three hundred times all in qanut, and then finish the prayer.
These recommended and voluntary prayers are loved mighty by Allah (swt), as the saying has made it a sign of the believer especially Salat Al-Layl. The prophet (pbuh) stated “Jibrayiyl (Gabriel) has praised Salat Al-Layl so much that I thought that the elite of my nation would not sleep”(12). To see more examples review Wassail Al-Shia v4.
1. Tahdhib Al-Ahkam v6 p52
2. (two for Fajr prayers, four for Duhr ((noon)), four for Asr ((afternoon)), three for Maghreb ((evening)), and four for Asha)
3. Al-Nisa verse 103 (translated by quran.com)
4. Wassail Al-Shia v4 p26
5. Da’im Al-Islam v1 p63
6. It is recommended to be with reciting the chapter of An-Nas after Al-Fatihah in the first Rik'a and Al-Falaq in the second after Al-Fatihah
7. It is recommended to be with reciting Al-Fatihah once, Al-Ikhlas three times and Al-Nas and Al-Falaq once
8. By stating allahum aghfir le-Ahmad for example
9. By doing Istaghfar
10. This is the status of a servant that wants refuge from the fire (of hell)
11. Pardon me or I beg for your forgiveness
12. Kanz Al-Amal v7 p790