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Fatima is Fatima

by : Dr. Ali Shari'ati

Fasting


Fasting:

Hadiths have stressed that fasting protects against the hell-fire and its chastisement. It is actually the most influential means of spiritual sports, willpower, and customs of endurance. It is the healthiest means of reforming the digestive system. Dr. A. Ismail states that the fasting is the only remedy that protects against many diseases, and the best prescription of the following defects:
-The fasting is prescribed for treating the chronic disorders of the intestines that are associated by fermentation of the albuminous and amyloid materials. Fasting -which is the abstinence from water and food from dawn to sunset- is the most successful way of purifying the intestines and treating the states of fermentation.
- It is also prescribed for treating the excessive fatness that is the result of overeating and the paucity of activities. In this case, fasting is the best curable method provided that it is accompanied by moderation during having the meal of breaking the fasting, and drinking water during the post-midnight meal.
- It is also prescribed for treating the spontaneous blood pressure. This disease is increasingly spreading due to luxury and psychic agitations. In such cases, Ramadhan is the month of grace and bless, especially for the excessively weighty.
- It is prescribed for treating diabetes. This disease spreads with the pressure of blood. It is often associated by the excessive weight. Hence, fasting is the beneficial treatment since the proportion of saccharine decreases with the retreat of the weight. Five hours after having a meal, the sugar in the blood reaches lower than the natural term in cases of slack saccharine urination. Ten hours later, it reaches lower levels. Before the discovery of the insulin, fasting, with some nutritious notices, was the best treatment of this disease, especially for the fat.
- It is prescribed for treating the tense and chronic nephritis that is associated by exudation and tumefaction.
- It is prescribed for treating the heart troubles that are associated by tumefaction.
- It is prescribed for treating the chronic arthritis, especially for the fat, such as the forty year old ladies. It has been noticed that fasting was the best cure, for this disease, since it has exceeded the other means of electricity, injections, drugs, and modern medicine.
It may be cited that fasting, in these cases, needs clinical prescription, while it is imposed on the healthy only. This is quite correct, but fasting protects against these diseases.
The Prophet (s) said, "Fast, so that you will be healthy." Fasting protects against many diseases and leads to mental disciplinary and good traits.

Pilgrimage:
Rites of the pilgrimage are considerable activities that strengthen the muscles, activate the bodily movements, and alert the organs. It is also the most notable Islamic conference by which Muslims would benefit greatly if they take as the occasion of discussing their political and economic problems.



NATIONAL AND MILITARY
EDUCATION



Genuineness, depth, and expansion are the characters of the Islamic education. In addition to the life affairs, the Islamic education is too comprehensive to avoid any affair or course. It aims at composing sound societies that receive the caravans of life and light completely confidently and familiarly. We have previously betrayed some vital pictures of the life affairs. In this last exposition, we will refer to others, yet we are unable to discuss all of them properly. Hence, we have to brief in our discussions.

NATIONAL AND SOCIAL EDUCATION

The Islamic national education is not mere slogans and enthusiastic chants or any other empty aspects that bring about no single advantage to the society. The actual national education of Islam alludes to rational and faithful activities that aim at servicing the nation purely. It also insinuates that the souls and riches should be sacrificed for the sake of the national independence, struggle, and cultural and economic development.

Social unity:
The mission of the Islamic national education is making the individuals feel that they form unity with the society. It also encourages hurling consciously and sincerely for achieving others’ pleasure and saving them from misfortunes. This is the implication of the Prophet’s saying, “Take to others whatever you like to yourselves, and guard others against what you guard yourselves against.”
Societies will be debilitated and baseless and not deserve dignity and life if the individuals work exclusively for themselves and ignore any sort of social reaction. Islam has worked deliberately for educating the society brightly by canceling the social classes and privileges and making all Muslims represent one body that if an organ is afflicted, the others stay up and suffer for it. Unity and congruity bring the social indulgence and guarantee dignity and interests.
Islam has constituted the Islamic unity on grounds of fraternity. This unity comprises huge energies that supply the Islamic community of understanding, altruism, and cooperation and create a unique model of social solidarity. It also blocks the way before the enemies and rivals, such as the snakes of greed and imperialism.
The Islamic fraternity is more than an extrinsic emotion. It is a secure relation lying in the minds to provoke on participating in welfare and adversity. The Prophet (s) declared oftentimes this fraternal relation. He, once, interrogated the man who came late after he had sent him in a mission. The man cited the want of clothes as his apology. “Your neighbor has two dresses that he might borrow you one,” said the Prophet (s). “Yes,” averred the man, “This is true.” The Prophet was depressed when he said, “Your neighbor does not represent the fraternity of Islam.”
Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “A Muslim is the brother of Muslims. He is their eye, mirror, and guide. He should not betray, wrong, cheat, belie, or backbite them.”
Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “A faithful believer is the brother of the believers. He should not revile, deject, or mistrust them.”
Islam has constructed the Islamic fraternity on deep bases that are similar to the natural brotherhood in strength and status. It has also legislated the most splendid courses that achieve the coalescence of powers and warn against the factors of discrepancy and disassembly.

MEANS OF SOCIAL UNITY
Islam has constituted the straight courses that lead to the determinism of the social correlation and the community of amiability and fraternity of Muslims.

Reciprocal kindness and sympathy:
Islam has encouraged being kind and sympathetic to each other. Kindness and sympathy are the most important means of Muslims’ unity and congruity. Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “Fear God and be good and concordant brothers for God’s sake. You should be interconnected and kind to each other. Visit and meet each other. Mention and refresh our affairs.”. “Muslims should visit each other and cooperate in fields of sympathy and condolence to the needy. They should be reciprocally empathy so that they will be congruently compassionate, as God decrees. You should pursue the supporters –Ansar- in the Prophet’s time.” “Visit each other and be reciprocally kind, merciful and sympathetic.”
If Muslims apply these vital instructions, they will certainly be one hand against others, and will stop their enemies and rivals. Moreover, poverty and deprivation will be eradicated from their societies. Cooperation and firm relations are the firmest factors of the social solidarity that protects Muslims from poverty and indigence.

Visiting:
Islam advises of exchanging visits since this is a base rule of founding collaboration, amiability, and relations. Imam Ali (a) said, “Meeting of brothers, even in a few numbers, is a great gain.” Imam al-Baqir (a) ordered Kheithama of conveying the following remarkable recommendations, within which is the exchanging of visits, to his adherents. The Imam said, “Convey the following to any of our adherents you may meet. Advise them of God-fearing. The rich and powerful should help the poor and the weak. The alive should attend the funerals. They should exchange visits and refresh our affair. God bless those who refresh our affair.” Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “Exchange visits. This powers up your hearts and makes you mention our sayings that distribute sympathy among you. You will be guided if you take in our sayings, and you will deviate and expire if you omit. Take in our sayings and I guarantee your being saved.”
The reference books of hadith are filled up with a great deal of reports that urge on exchanging visits, which is a basic element of the national and social education.

Settling people’s needs:
Islam has recommended and stressed the necessity of settling people’s needs, since it is a significant factor of the social relations. The Prophet (s) said, “Spending a single hour, whether in daylight or at night, in settling an individual’s need is preferable to a month confinement to mosques.* Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “Compete with each other in the field of doing favors to others. The Paradise has a definite portal, named ‘the favor’, from which none will enter except those who do favors in this world. While the servants –of God- settle the needs of their brothers, God orders two angels of encompassing them for seeking God’s forgiving them and settling their needs.” Safwan al-Jemmal.symbol 183 \f "Symbol" \s 11.·. said: I was attendant before as-Sadiq (a) when a Meccan man complained a question. The Imam asked me to help him. I did and came back. The Imam was highly joyful for my deed. He said, “Providing a help to a Muslim is favorable for me to circumambulating around the Kaaba for a whole week.” The Imam went on expressing the great rewards of settling others’ needs, “As a man came to Imam al-Hasan (a) seeking his help, the Imam hurried up. He passed by al-Hussein (a), who was performing a prayer. “What for did you overlook Abu Abdullah – al-Hussein (a)- for this mission?” asked the Imam. “I intended, but some said he had been in confinement,” said the man. The Imam expressed, “It is most surely that helping you is preferable to a month confinement.”.
Settling people’s needs is one of the firmest factors that strengthen people’s relations and create a community of love and association.

Aid and condolence:
Reciprocal aid and condolence arouse the Muslims’ social unity and lead to the confirmation of congruity and harmony. The Prophet (s) said, “For those who relieve a Muslim’s agony in this world, God will relieve one of their agonies on the Resurrection Day. God aids the servants as long as they aid their brothers.. Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “For those who relieve a believer’s agony in this world, God will relieve one of their agonies on the Resurrection Day, and will revive them from the tombs with fully cool hearts. God will offer food of the Paradise to those who feed the needy in this world. Similarly, He will offer the paradisiacal sealed pure drink to those who offer drink to the needy in this world. “For those who relieve and meet an insolvent believer’s need in this world, God will settle their needs in this world and the Hereafter. For those who cover up a believer’s flaw, God will cover up seventy of their flaws in this world and the Hereafter. God aids the servants as long as they aid their brothers. Thus, benefit by the admonition and seek the good. Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “Those who settle the believers’ needs are not only delighting them. They, by God, delight us. Moreover, they delight the Prophet (s). “The most preferable deed to God is delighting the believers.” Imam ar-Rida (a) said, “For those who relieve a believer in this world, God will relieve them on the Resurrection Day.” These sayings urge on benevolence and condolence for the sake of applying the Islamic fraternity and solidarity so that any gap, from which the rivals and enemies may penetrate to the Islamic body, will be blocked.

Rights of the Islamic fraternity:
Islam has organized a nonesuch course of fraternity and bound Muslims on applying it for achieving coherence and unity.
Imam Ali (a) said that the Prophet (s) had said, “Muslims have thirty rights that are imposed upon their brothers who are unexcused unless they carry out. They are:
Pardoning the flaw; sympathizing in grievous situations; covering up the defect; overlooking the fault; accepting the excuse; rejecting the backbiting; keeping on advising; respecting the friendship; caring for the pledge; visiting the ailed; attending the funerals; responding the invitation; receiving the present; rewarding the relation; thanking the grace; excelling in support; observing the sanctuaries; settling the needs; answering the questions; blessing the sneeze; guiding the lost; responding the salutation; bettering the words; acknowledging the favors; believing the oaths; acceding to the backers; staying away from antagonizing; and advocating whether in states of wronging or being wronged. The wrong brothers are advocated by preventing them from wrongdoing. The wronged brothers are advocated by backing them for regaining their rights. Neither Muslims should give up their brothers nor should they disappoint them. They should take to them whatever they like to themselves and guard them against whatever they guard themselves. The Prophet (s) then said, “For those who neglect any of these rights, they will be demanded on the Resurrection Day.”.
Muslims will certainly be the most developed, perfect, and united nation if they apply these rights to their lives.
Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “Muslims have seven obligatory rights on their brothers. Violence of any of these rights takes out of God’s sanctum and obedience. They are:
(First) Muslims should take to their brothers whatever they like to themselves, and guard them against whatever they guard themselves.
(Second) Muslims should avoid their brothers’ ire, pursue their satisfaction, and obey their orders.
(Third) Muslims should help their brothers with their souls, riches, tongues, hands, and legs.
(Fourth) Muslims should be their brothers’ eye, guide, and mirror.
(Fifth) Muslims should avoid saturation while their brothers are hungry, and avoid quenching while the brothers are thirst, and avoid dressing well while the others are naked.
(Sixth) Muslims should send their servants for serving their brothers who have no servants.
(Seventh) Muslims should approve the others’ oaths, respond to the invitations, visit the ill, attend the funerals, and take initiative in settling the needs before they are asked. These matters correlate the affairs.”.
These rights compose the excellent course that achieves the nations’ solidarity, union, and protection against discrepancy and difference.
Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “Muslims’ rights are that they should never be saturated or dressing well while others are hungry and naked. How great the Muslims’ rights that are obliged upon their brothers are! You should take to your brothers whatever you like to yourselves. You should ask them when you need, and give them when they need. You should never stop treating your brothers benevolently, and they should never stop treating you the like. You should back them and they should back you. You should keep them while they are absent, and visit them when they are present. You should regard and dignify them because they are yours and you are theirs. If your brothers blame you, you should not leave before seeking their forgiveness. You should praise God for the wealth that they get, and support them in misfortunes and help them in neediness. This relationship may be cut by a single indication of nagging.”.
This chart provides a vital course of the Islamic league that distributes emotions and passions and creates Muslims’ alliance in good and bad.
Imam as-Sadiq (a) also said, “The believers’ rights are the inherent amiability, sharing the riches, guarding the family in absence, supporting the wronged, receiving the share of the absent, visiting the tombs, and avoiding wronging, cheating, betraying, disappointing, belying, or showing any sign of boredom.”. He once asked a man about the conditions of people there. The man praised them elegantly. “How about the rich men’s visiting the poor?” asked the Imam. “Not that bad,” answered the man. “How about the rich men’s supervising the poor?” asked the Imam. “Not that bad,” answered the man. “How about the rich men’s relations with the poor?” asked the Imam. “You are mentioning moralities that we hardly have,” said the man. The Imam (a) said, “How do you claim those people’s being Shias?”.
These excellent instructions supply the nation with all of the components of renaissance and maturity, and protect from discrepancy and disunion. They are surely the most impressive principals of the national and social education that fix the boundaries and barriers before the antagonizing powers, and encompass the nation with compact fences.

FACTORS OF DISCREPANCY AND DESTRUCTION
Alienation:
Islam has warned against alienation and the rupture of relations because they contribute to the perfusion of animosity and disrelish.
The Prophet (s) said, “Any two Muslims, who do not settle their discrepancy before three days, are out of Islam and breaking their fraternity. The precedent in conciliation will precede to the Paradise on the Judgment Day.”. “It is illicit for a Muslim to diverge his brother more than three days.”. Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “One of the two parties that depart each other deserves disloyalty and curse. It happens that the two may deserve the disloyalty and curse. The wronged party deserves disloyalty and curse because he does not invite his brother to conciliation and the regaining of their relations. My father said, if two parties litigate, the wronged should confess of being the wrong, for breaking the litigation. God the Blessed is just. He will retaliate the wrong..

Inconsistency:
Islam has denied rigid inconsistency because it creates Muslims’ opposition and rupture of relations. Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “He whoever refrains from supporting his brother will surely be undergone an act of settling a need due to which he is sinned.” Imam Musa (a) said, “He that refrains from providing the help that a Muslim asks for, is rupturing God’s loyalty.”
Imam as-Sadiq (a) asked his companions, “What for do you disparage us?” A man from Khorasan answered, “God forbid! We never disparage you or any of your affairs.” The Imam said to the man, “You were one of those who disparaged us.” The man was astonished and horrified, and sought God’s protection against disparaging the Imams. The Imam exposed, “You heard the tired man who sought your support, but you disparaged him. He whoever disparages a believer is surely disparaging us and violating God’s sanctuary.”.

Injury and disgracing:
Islam has forbidden injuring and disgracing any Muslim, because such acts infringe the Muslims’ union and congruity. Besides, they are sorts of wronging and aggression that Islam has forbidden. The holy Quran refers to this prohibition. God says,
And those who ‘hurt’ the believing men and the believing women without their having earned it, they are guilty
indeed of a false accusation and manifest sin.
The Prophet (s) said, “God the Elevated says: He that humiliates My faithful slave is colliding Me.” “It is illicit for Muslims to refer to their brothers by injurious look.”
Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “For those who disgrace and humiliate a believer for his weakness or poverty, God will shame them before the creatures on the Resurrection Day.” “For those who humiliate a believer, whether poor or not, God will be humiliating and abhorring them till they retreat their humiliation.”.
Humiliation and injury are the qualities of the sinful that are unfaithful in the human standards and the elevated idealities. Islam has antagonized this quality because it ruptures the bonds of amiability and Muslims’ fraternity.

Terrorism and chaos:
Islam has forbidden terrorizing each other to avoid oppression and rupture of relations. The Prophet (s) said, “For those who gaze at a believer for terrorizing him, God will frighten them on the day when there will be no shade but His.” Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “He will be with Pharaoh and his adherents that whoever causes an unjust ruler to frighten a believer.”

Revilement:
Revilement creates disunion. Islam has warned against reviling even at the enemies. God says:
And do not revile at those who are atheists so that they will not revile at Allah intentionally without awareness.
Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “The Prophet (s) advised a man of matters among which was avoiding reviling at people so that animosity will not occur.” The Prophet (s) said, “Reviling at the believers is desertion. Fighting them is atheism. Backbiting them is disobedience. The believers’ properties are as sanctified as their blood.” Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “He whoever berates a believer will die very badly and will not see any goodness.”.
Vituperation, revilement, and defamation are such disgusted qualities that publicize animosity, malice, and hatred.

Inspecting people’s flaws:
Islam has surrounded the social unity with a protective fence by forbidding any matter that may split it. Thence, Islam has forbidden inspecting people’s flaws and broadcasting their defects, since these matters cause disparity and arouse abhorrence among Muslims. The holy Quran warns against such matters. God says:
Surely, as for those who love that scandal should circulate respecting those who believe, they shall have a
grievous chastisement in this world and the hereafter.
The Prophet (s) said, “O, you who Islamized by tongues, not hearts! Do not inspect people’s flaws. For those who inspect people’s flaws, God will inspect their own. God will surely unmask them.” “Charity is the most precedent act in rewarding. Aggression is the most precedent act in punishment. It is the biggest shame to inspect people’s flaws and forget your own, and impute dishonor to people for an action you cannot give up, and harm the associate with uninterested matters.” Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “The nearest degree to atheism is accompanying someone, in the name of the religion, for inspecting the faults to dishonor thereafter.”

Belittling:
It is a factor of discrepancy and disintegration to censure, belittle, and degrade others. The Prophet (s) said, “He that broadcasts an evil, is considered as the originator. He whoever finds fault with a Muslim, will not die before God makes him carry that fault.” Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “For those who face their brothers with a matter they detest, God will face them with their faults in this world and the Hereafter.”

Pride:
Islam has warned against taking pride in the lineage and any other matter, considering it as an element of rupturing the Islamic fraternity. Pursuant to the Islamic Sharia, people are evenly equal. Except God-fearing and good deeds, nothing distinguishes people. In his splendid recommendation to Malik al-Ashtar, Imam Ali (a) says, “People are of two kinds; either brothers of religion or matches of creation.”
As a famous Arab character began to take pride in his lineage before Imam al-Baqir (a), the Imam said, “Do not show us your lineage proudly. God has raised by faith those whom were called humble, and humiliated those whom were called honorable due to their atheism. None is preferred except through God-fearing.”.
Islam has antagonized all the means that rupture the social unity and dissociate Muslims’ harmony, and forbidden every matter that causes dissidence, such as backbiting, tattling, mockery, and calumny.

CRYSTALLIZATION OF THE POLITICAL CONSCIENCE

The Islamic national education concerns with the crystallization of the political conscience and the florescence of the public mentality before the social circumstances. Islam has imposed the positive intrusion in the national affairs and committed the citizens to keeping deliberately their interests and affairs. None is permitted to stop negatively against the public interests of the country or neglect any of its affairs or be indifferent for any event or misfortune that the nation undergoes. The Prophet (s) said, “You all are wardens and you all are responsible for your wards.” “He whoever disinterests in Muslims’ affairs is completely out of Islam.”
This hadith is the most evident proof on the necessity of publicizing the political conscience among Muslims to link their mental and social renaissance in this bright factuality.
Within the most important programs of the national and social cognizance is the communal implementation of enjoining good and forbidding evil. This procedure protects the publics’ dignity and guards against the violence of the oppressors. It also enables Muslims to live in peace and security since none would be wronged or degraded. They also can reach the highest levels of social renaissance. In our ‘The Political System in Islam’, we have exposed these topics and evidenced the correlation between Islam and policy, which is a part of its factuality and core. We have also proved that Islam may lose activity and essence without policy.

NATIONAL OBLIGATIONS

- People must defend the homeland and protect it against the foreign invasion. It is surely a holy duty. Muslims, who are asked to hurry to jihad and play positive roles for the sake of struggling against any invasion or takeover, must haste to jihad. The obligation of defense increases according to the nearness to the occupied country. Had Muslims carried the spirits of jihad collectively, the Jewish gang would not have seized Palestine for founding their state in the heart of the Arab homeland. The Zionists have been working for terminating all of the signs of the Islamic setting, and subduing people of Palestine to massacres, displacement, and imprisonment. Meanwhile, America is supporting them with the most modern arms in addition to economical and military aids and fortifying their procedures of violating the human rights. When will the Arabs and Muslims rise to consolidate their powers for eliminating this cancer that threatens termination and ruin?
Muslims should dedicate their souls to serving their homeland and understand deeply all of the surrounding events. This responsibility is the mission of the diplomatic cadre and the politicians. Those are responsible for husbanding means via which the economical and social development occurs.
- People must fulfill perfectly the duties of their nation and homeland.
- People must encourage the national industries that should be preferred to the foreign.
- People must boycott the whole goods and products of the unfriendly countries. This is the best means of impeding the aggressors and the greed.
- People must work seriously and believe in the fatal issues of their homeland. The homeland should not be tied to the imperialist coalition. The national economical destinies along with every matter that may harm the homeland’s independence, security, and freedom, should not be gambled.