Last updateD, d M Y ga

Birthday and Childhood of Fatima Ma'sumah (s.a.)

Birthday and Childhood of Fatima Ma'sumah (s.a.)

In the holy city of Medina, the holy household was awaiting the arrival of a new born.

In the house of Imam Kadhim (A.S.)...

Every Father Should Try Educating His Child

Every Father Should Try Educating His Child

Among the factors which build up man's personality are the family environment and parental guidance. The latter factor i...

Relaxation Techniques for Children

Relaxation Techniques for Children

Relaxation techniques are methods of distracting away from tensions by means of recreational activities. They are helpfu...

  • Most Read

  • Latest Post

  • Most Reviews

  • Photo gallery

  • Bookmark pages

  • Book Reviews

Sample image Sample image Sample image Sample image Sample image Sample image

Fatima is Fatima

by : Dr. Ali Shari'ati

Back You are here: Home Books The Educational System in Islam Keeping The Covenant

Keeping The Covenant

Keeping the covenant:

Keeping the covenant is a notable aspect of the Islamic education. Islam has called to this quality. God praised Samuel the prophet by saying:
And mention in the Book Samuel. Surely, he was truthful in his promise, and he was an apostle, a prophet.
The pledge is a recorded document; hence, it must be fulfilled. God says:
O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do? It is most hateful to Allah that you should say that
which you do not do.
And fulfill the covenant of Allah when you have made a covenant, and do not break the oaths after making them
fast, and you have indeed made Allah a surety for you. And fulfill the promise. Surely, every promise shall be
questioned about.
The Prophet (s) said, "The signs of the hypocrites are three, even if they perform the prayers and fast and claim being Muslims. They lie when they speak, and breach when they promise and cheat when they are trusted."
As he was asked about the signs of the hypocrites, the Prophet (s) answered, "They breach when they pledge."
The fulfillment of promises is a social necessity upon which the life course and system depend. Islam has confirmed the necessity of fulfilling the promises and compelled Muslims with it even if the other party was an enemy. In his will to Malik al-Ashtar, Imam Ali says, "If you tie with your enemy a knot or dress him your covenant, you should encompass this covenant with fulfillment and keep your pact by honesty. Make yourself an armor of what you have given. Nothing -of God's precepts- is more agreeable, despite people's discrepant caprices and varying opinions, than the glorifying of the fulfillment of pledges. This commits the polytheists, not Muslims, among them due to there regarding the consequences of breaching as great woes. Do not breach by your humility, infringe your covenant, or violate your enemies. Only the rascal ignorant do venture God after He had made His pledge and rectitude the security that should be publicized among His servants by His mercy, and the shelter and vicinity to which the servants harbor and rest."
This is the pure Islamic attitude to pledges and promises. It has decreed obligatorily the fulfilling of the pledge and promise even to the foes and the rivals of Islam.


The Islamic education has exerted all efforts for habituating to the good wording and avoiding the bad. God says:
To Him do ascend the good words. And the good deeds lift them up.
The good wording ascends to the Lord to reward it and bless its sayer. Islam has emphasized on this matter in many occasions. God also orders the servants of speaking only the best wording. God says:
And say to My servants that they speak that which is best. Surely, the Shaitan sows dissensions among them.
And you shall speak to men good words.
Good wording achieves the good reputation and saves from numerous problems and difficulties, the source of which is the evil wording that, in most cases, arouses spites and draws approaching damages.
Lowering the voice and avoiding noises are within the Islamic instructions. God says:
And lower your voice. Surely, the most hateful of voices is braying of the asses.
Imam Musa al-Kadim (a) narrated that the Prophet (s) liked the low-voiced and hated the sonorous.
The loud-toned speech refers to the ill manners and the degraded behaviors and ethics of the speaker.
The previous noble traits are surely the brands of God's illumination and the gifts of His mercy. They push to the good manners, aspire to good doing, and preclude from irregularity and deviation.


The evil tendencies that lie in the mental horizons stimulate to evil and sinning, and occlude against the straight path. If they are left free, they will overcome and appropriate the virtuous traits and noble morals by which the human beings differ from animals. Islam has posed the sound bases of uprooting and ceasing the activities of such evil tendencies so that mankind will be saved against vices and sins. Muslim ethicists have studied these tendencies on the light of the Quranic and prophetic texts.


Rage is the vilest mental defect that introduces the behavioral aberrance and irregularity.

Definition of rage:
Ethicists define rage as a psychical action due to which the blood in the heart is excited. Hence, it spreads in the arteries and reaches the top of the body and makes the brain as same as a cave in which fire is flared to blacken its sides and cause that little torch to extinguish. Thus, the face and eyes are reddened.. They added that the blood, when tensed, makes a violent movement that fills the brain, as well as the other nerves, with darkening smokes. Such smokes screen the intellective illumination and enfeebles the actions of the brain; therefore, any admonition or advice will be invalid. Sometimes, coarseness and intensity may be added to the manners of the angry.
Other ethicists define rage as a firebrand of God’s flaming fire that prospects only the hearts, and lies in the bottom like the fire’s lying under ash. The zeal of religion takes it out from the believers’ hearts. The zeal of the screened arrogance and ignorance in the tyrants’ hearts has a connection to the Satan who said, “You created me from fire and created him from mud.”
These definitions reveal the vile factuality of this hateful tendency that usurps man’s equanimity and intellective components.

Reasons of rage:
The following are the reasons of rage:
- The intellective weakness and laxity, that occur due to sinking in boons and luxury. This brings about the influence of any affect.
- The mental sensation, that is aroused due to the feelings of insult, and the perception of the appearances without thinking or deliberateness.
- Disease and physical fatigue that consume the intellective powers.
- Engrossment in working and the continuation of staying up and engaging the mind with greed that sow the seeds of rage.

Disadvantages of rage:
Rage has many disadvantages that cause many risks. It is the most influential element of criminality and retorting. Rage has caused numerous misfortunes and opened many jails, gallows, and fire. It has also cut off the bonds of relations between kinsmen, fathers, sons, and friends. Tongues uttered insults and revilement because of rage that unveiled hatred and schadenfreude, and induced to beat and wound, and aroused the feelings of malice and enmity. An ethicist says, “Rage causes the mind to confuse, the body to thrill, the lips to shrink, the voice to hoarse, the breath to accelerate, the face to flare up, the veins to puff, the hands to shrivel, the nerves to confuse, the hear to pulse, the blood to boil, the mouth to froth, and the eyes to throw evil. When all these are noticed on the angry, it will be surely adjudged that the insane are sounder and nearer to bettering than the angry are. If the angry look in the mirror to see that disgusting mien, they will surely feel shameful and be embarrassed.”
At any rate, rage is one of the vilest the most injurious manners since it causes variable misfortunes and calamities and inflicts the greatest difficulties and dilemmas.

Warning against rage:
Islam has warned against rage, which is a nefarious quality. It has counted it as a danger and risk. Many narratives have been reported in this regard. The Prophet (s) said, “Rage corrupts faithfulness like the vinegar when rots honey.” He also regarded self-striving and self-possession in the states of rage as signs of heroism. He said, “The hero is not that who overcomes in fighting. The real hero is that who possesses himself in rage.” Imam Ali (a) said, “Fury is a sort of madness.” Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “My father used to say: Which matter is more intense than rage? In the states of rage, a man may kill the innocent, and slander the honorable matrons.” He also said, “He whoever lacks control on his rage, will not control his mind.” “Rage eliminates the minds of the wise.”.
Islam has also added the pardon in the states of rage to the believers’ qualifications. God says:
And when they rage, they surely forgive.
Islam has warned Muslims against being submitted to rage that leads to disintegration and failing in this world and the Hereafter.

Precautionary methods
Ethicists refer to several means that protect against the evil of rage:
- The recall of vileness and remembering the bad results of rage that brings about problems and desolation.
- Considering the advantages of composure, such as the good reputation. It is also recommended to remember that the angry disputants may be changed into close friends by means of self-possession and pardon. God says:
Repel evil with what is best, when lo! Be between whom and you was enmity would be as if he were a warm
- Regarding God’s might, which is the most powerful. The revenge that is directed at the other party, especially when he is weak, is always less powerful than God’s. Aggression, however, overtakes the doom and negligence of God’s mercy.
- Remarking that rage is a sign of mind imperfection and psychic defect. The angry are estimated as same as the valueless idiot. This remark may guard the enraged from sticking such descriptions to themselves, since self-esteem and conservation of entity and reputation are personal matters.
- Remarking the defects and the diseases of nervous collapse and disorder that is originated from ire and rage.
- Remarking the physical state of the angry and the ill-spoken statements they would utter.
- Avoiding curiosity, inquisitiveness, and sycophancy.
- Hiding and devaluating the ill wording. God says:
And when they pass by what is vain, they pass by nobly.
- The observance of the physical health and cleanness, and practicing sports. In most cases, rage occurs to the diseased.


The Islamic education exerts all efforts for the sake of eliminating the ghost of fear to achieve tranquil and settled life.

Reasons of fear:
Islam has antagonized the several factors that originate fear, and called to release them. They are:

Fear of death:
Fear of death is a natural phenomenon. Man always avoids any circumstance that may cause danger, and tries to take any available means that keep the life and oppose termination. The adherence to the lifeline may cause humiliation and mortification. Islam has rejected humiliation and regarded it as a sort of self-weakness since fear of death will never postpone or change what God has prescribed to man, who definitely be led to death in the very limited time. God says:
And Allah does not respite a soul when its appointed term has come.
Any effort of respiting death is void. God says:
Every soul shall taste of death.
Whenever you are, death will overtake you, though you are in lofty towers.
Matters that prevent from performing the national duties, especially opposing the unjust rulers, will never change in any means the factuality of death that is imposed on everybody.

Fear for subsistence:
God the Elevated has entrusted man’s earnings to His will and volition. God grants whomever He wills. He says:
Allah makes abundant the means of subsistence for whom He pleases of His servants, and straitens them for
whom he pleases.
Surely, Allah is the Bestower of sustenance, the Lord of Power, the Strong.
Seek the sustenance from Allah, serve Him, and be grateful to Him.
The holy Quran asserts this fact in many texts so that man will be released from the ill delusions that relate the sustenance and earnings to the creatures, not the Creator, so that they may be betaken as gods. God says:
Surely, they whom you serve besides Allah do not control for you any sustenance.
By means of such a creative education, Islam has canceled all of the sorts of fears that may prevent from delving in the various the aspects of sustenance, which is the most dangerous. Thus, it has committed the earnings to God, and vacated any role of the creatures in this process. This regulation paves the way of dignity, freedom, and honor so that people would not take any course to slavery and misfortune.

Fear of the coming:
The anticipation of coming problems is a natural phenomenon. Islam has released men from this bond and attached whatever inflicts people to God. God says:
Say: Nothing will afflict us save what Allah has ordained for us. He is our
Patron, and on Allah let the believers rely.
Say: I do not control any benefit or harm for my own soul except as Allah pleases.
The individuals, who believe that they will be inflicted by matters that God has ordained, will surely live in tranquility and beatitude, away from anxiety, disorder, submission, and humiliation.
Islam has fought all of the factors and incentives of fear so that the whole horizons of life will be used thoroughly.

The factual incentives of fear:

Islam has emphasized on fear of God. God says:
But do not fear them and fear Me if you are believers.
That Allah might know who fears Him in secret.
God-fearing, when settled in the mind, will certainly prevent from committing crimes or sins, and prompts the good and virtuous doing.

Fear of disobedience:
Fear of disobedience and sins is the actual fear because it takes away from vices and forbidden matters, and warns the punishment of the Hereafter. God the Elevated mentions the pious believers who fear Him and escape from disobedience. He says:
Say, surely, I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the chastisement of a grievous day.
The Prophet said, “One must not fear other than his guilt.”
Before we commit a sin, we must remember and fear God, Who will punish in this world and the Hereafter.

Fear of the Resurrection Day:
Man should fear the terrors and difficulties of the Resurrection Day, by avoiding any matter that God has forbidden, and clinging to the precepts and obligations. The holy Quran exposes the horrifying terrors of the situation on the Resurrection Day. God says:
The day on which a man shall fly from his brother and his mother and his father and his spouse and his son. Every
man of them shall on that day have an affair, which will occupy him.
Surely, the violence of the hour is a grievous thing. On the day when you shall see it, every woman giving such
shall quit in confusion what she suckled, and every pregnant woman shall lay down her burden, and you shall see
men intoxicated, and they shall not be intoxicated but the chastisement of Allah will be severe.
The Quran also exposes the horrible chastisement that the tyrants and murderers will encounter on that day. God says:
Lay hold on him then put a chain on him. Then cast him into the burning fire. Then thrust him into a chain the
length of which is seventy cubits. Surely, he did not believe in Allah the Great. Nor did he urge the feeding of the
poor. Therefore, he has not here today a true friend. Nor any food except the wrongdoers’ eats.
It is obligatory upon every individual, who possesses a mentality, to shun any sort of sinning, and to fear God. Naturally, such a high education will achieve a bright and pure mentality


Envy is the virulent disease that affected men all over history and caused many distresses and difficulties. Islam has warned against envy and reproached the envious and called for prompting against it.

Reality of envy:
The ill-favored envy* stands for the wish that the amenities were to lapse. In other words, the evil envy is the intendment of ruining and destroying. The desire of getting the same amenities of somebody else has nothing to do with envy. This is the emulation. In most cases, the feeling of obtaining others’ good qualities is being favorable since it encourages doing well. The Prophet said, “The faithful believer emulates, but does never envy.” Likewise, envy is different from the competition that stands for striving for copying others’ good deeds. It is the main incentive of the industrial and commercial progression. Islam has urged on competing with each other in the fields of good and benevolence. God says:
And for that let the aspirers aspire.

Warning against envy:
Islam has paid a great attention to protect Muslims against the insalubrious disease of envy because it causes social disunion and spreads enmity. It has also criticized and rebuked the envious.
Several Verses deny and malign the envious. God says:
Many of the followers of the Book wish that they could turn you back into unbelievers after your faith, out of
envy from themselves.
Or do they envy the people for what Allah has given to them of His grace?
God also exposes the nature of envy. He says:
If good befalls you, it grieves them, and if an evil afflicts you, they rejoice at it.
The Prophetic texts are also filled up with many indications to the ill manner of envy. The Prophet (s) said, “Envy consumes the good deeds like fire when consumes wood.”. “Poverty is about to be atheism, and envy is about to overcome God’s act.”. “The malady of the past nations has crept to you. It is malice and envy, which is shaving. It shaves of religion, not hair. By the Prevailing of Mohammed’s soul, you will not be believers before you love each other. May I lead to a matter after which you will certainly love each other? Propagate salutation among you.”
Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “Man may convert to atheism when he commits an ill manner in case of rage. Envy surely consumes faith like fire when consume the wood.”.
Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “The plague of the religion are envy, self-esteem, and arrogance.”.
Besides, there are many texts warning against envy, which is an epidemic that corrodes the entity and change the envious into victim of pains and infliction.

Incentives of envy:
Ethicists referred to a number of incentives that originate envy:
- The origin of envy is the mental evilness and avarice. It takes the souls to the bottoms. Such souls are annoyed when they notice God’s amenities and charities widespread over people, and rejoice when they notice distressed persons. This is the most evil sort of envy. The Prophet (s) said, “God’s amenities have enemies. They are those who envy people for receiving God’s charities.”
- Envy is originated from enmity and malice. The enemies and the malicious are pleased when they see others sink in grief and sorrow. They feel depressed as they notice them live in luxury.
- It is also originated from the desire of exceeding others. The bearers of such desires are dejected when others excel them, and think they will obtain comfort if they excel others.
- It is also originated from the anticipation of missing opportunities and interests. This feeling is generally stuck to craftsmen. It extends with the narrowness of the province. The big cities may lack this sort of envy because of the engrossment of crafts.
- It is also originated from arrogance and pride. The arrogant may fear of others’ excelling them if their elegance is increasing.
- It is also originated form contempt. The envious, who contempt others, wish the fading of others’ amenities. This sort comprises the atheists’ envying the prophets for being given the Lord’s mission exclusively. Those atheists used to say to the prophets, as the Quran exposes, “Your are naught but mortals like ourselves.” This envy also incites those atheists to accuse the prophets and apostles falsely. Anyhow, these accusations would change into the publicity of those apostles’ virtues and elevation.
Abu Temmam, the famed poet, referred to this meaning when he composed a couple of verses in which he asserted that God uses the tongue of the envious when He wills to arouse an unseen virtue.

Misfortunes of envy:
Numerous misfortunes and calamities are originated from envy. The envious may be inflicted by ceaseless grief and sorrow because they suffer if any amenity is granted to a mortal. God’s amenities, however, are incessant. Thus, the envious are in continual regret. Consequently, this will affect the physical health. Ibnul-Mutaz says, “Envy is the epidemic of the body.” A spiritualist says, “I have never seen such wrong people who are as same as the wronged. They consider the amenity as their calamity.” The envious are the rejecters of God’s act. In most cases, this may lead them to atheism and disbelief. Accordingly, the Prophet said, “Envy consumes the good deeds like fire when consumes wood.”
The reduction in the social ranks of the envious is one of the misfortunes involved. People usually abandon the envious, since they cause the rupture of relations in addition to other defects, such as fabrication, backbiting, tattling, perfidy, treason, calumny, killing, and larceny besides other sins and evil-doings.

Treatment of envy:
Ethicists have cited some treatments for this disease:
- The envious are prescribed of acceding to the ethics of Islam and considering God in every action since this precludes and trains on leaving this vile habit.
- The envious should regard that this ill quality is a perishing disease that results in falling in this world and failing in the Hereafter. The envious will surely leave this habit if they look curiously upon this fact. Self-love is one of the inveterate human qualities. Man will definitely avoid any matter that may lead to expiration. For the envious, when they esteem that envy will never harm the others, they will think of giving up this habit.
- Within the matters that help in quitting envy is looking to those who are in lower states, so that God’s graces and amenities will be realized. The Prophet said, “Looking to the more should be followed by looking to the less.”.
The envious are prescribed of considering the results of envy that brings the ill manners as well as misadventures and vices.