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Fatima is Fatima

by : Dr. Ali Shari'ati


THE CULTURAL PLANNING IN THE MODERN EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES

The modern regimes have paid special attention to the teaching affairs, considering them as the natural right of every citizen under the responsibility and supervision of the governments. Ministries and several committees have been dedicated to the teaching processes. The missions of these bodies are concerning, developing, and advancing the teaching processes. Teaching federations have been also established for noticing and guarding the teachers’ affairs. The great powers have devoted grand assets of the public budget to expand the scopes of teaching. This has created the many schools, faculties, and universities that provide studies in various fields of sciences and arts. The tremendous ideological developments of inventions and industrials have been the outcome of this concern. Man could invade the outer space, reach the moon and dispatch satellites that pictured every situation they passed by and sent these pictures to the earth. Man could also repair any defect in those satellites from the headquarters on the earth. Those satellites have automatically recorded the information of the climate and the universal rays they pass by in their orbits. Science is going on more developments, and man is going on achieving greater triumphs. Nevertheless, each political regime in this world has adopted a special philosophy in judgment and policy and has benefited by science for publicizing its principals and political ideas.

THE TEACHING COURSES IN THE WEST

The teaching systems in the Western states, as well as other places, have depended upon the development, crystallization, and expansion of the material sciences. People have been competing with each other in the fields of science and knowledge since these two are within the life necessities. They have also believed that the processes of illumination and growth are obtained through the publicity of science only. Adam Smith says, “Any people that are ruled by an organizing government should never leave any individual uneducated.”.
The criterion of peoples’ progress all over history has been based upon the scope of the nation’s possession of teaching opportunities, which are the real wealth through which noble lives and mastership can be achieved.
In the past, the West was moaning in the chains of ignorance after it had degraded socially and mentally, and lost any power of progress and science. Myths, illusions, and weak customs and traditions controlled the west for centuries. This feeling of defect and retardation induced the people there to communicate with the Islamic world for excerpting the elements of renaissance and growth. Hence, they quoted mathematics, chemistry, medicine, philosophy, and astronomy in addition to other legislative and social methods. Hundreds of Islamic scientific books were translated into their languages that many Islamic terms are still noticed. The West burst forth in founding faculties and schools and itemizing each science and art. Yet, many flaws that led to the loss of a conscious education have influenced the teaching courses there.

The expelling of Moralities
The Western teaching courses paid no attention to the moralities. They expelled ethics from the factuality of the studying life. An educationist says, “The Western teaching systems are no more than a cabal against religion, ethics, and magnanimity.. They have been also unconcerned with the conscious education that aims at planting liberal and elevated traits and tendencies in the spirits. The grand educationists agree that teaching is meaningless unless it leads to perfection. Froble says, “Precisely, the purpose of teaching is the presentation of a scarified life which is full of sincerity and perfection.”. Mr. Lehman says, “The American education does not create any common culture or set of principals or ethical disciplining.”. A Western educationist says, “Teaching has been empty of situating the bases of reciprocal love and cooperation. Hence, it is not strange that humanity among individuals is eliminated.”.
School is the nonesuch means that the human society has innovated for guiding sons uprightly so that their behavior fits the habits and customs that the society defines. Unfortunately, the Western school was inconsiderate and unconcerned with this meaning. This has decreed many disadvantages, the most significant of which was the collapse of the human values, demolishing of the principal cooperation among the society members, and the circulation of egotism, greed, fabrication, and trickery. George Friland says, “Sociologists confirm that the individuals’ right citizenship and good ethics are the basic criterion of the values of the human civilization. On this account, education should have carried the heaviest burden of saving the civilization against retrogradation. H. G. Wells, the great author, who says that civilization is a competition between education and collision, perceived this situation.”.
The source of the ethical crisis that is suffered by the Western teaching courses and their adopters has been the studying courses’ avoiding the spiritual and humanitarian systems and values. Scientific institutes cannot contribute perfectly in structuring the individuals’ personalities unless their courses are based upon a correct religious cognizance. As the American authorities experienced the new generations’ spiritual privation, they allowed the churches to establish private schools named, “sectarian schools.” The management has been in the hands of the Catholic Church that enjoys a broad system of primary schools and an increasing number of secondary schools. The Lotharios church also manages a great number of primary and secondary schools. Other religious foundations grant exclusive periods at which the representatives of churches teach religious questions in the institutes and faculties other than those subjected by churches. The authorities there urged children on joining these churches for receiving religious teachings.. Christianity has not possessed sound courses in the educational fields, and has not been sufficient enough for performing a comprehensive life and an individual reformation. It refers only to the refuge to churches and worldly abstinence. This has created many mental perplexities and alienation against the religion.
Christianity has been too short to manage the affairs of life and constitute reformatory programs. Weakness and delicacy have affected Christianity because the churchmen have insinuated slanders and myths that contradict logic and antagonize the mental powers. It is not unfamiliar that Christianity fails in preparing a developing and sound education that is marked by composure and cooperation in constructing the human society.
At any rate, the Western teaching systems have been unsuccessful in performing their educational missions, and failed in achieving generations of sound and conscious behavior. Inversely, they produced generations that are defected in their morals and tendencies searching for harlotry, frivolity, and impudence and hounding impulses, amusement, and disintegration in the fields of values and ethics.

THE TEACHING SYSTEMS IN THE COLONIES

The Western imperialists have taken initiative in affecting private teaching courses in the colonies. These courses aim at killing the conscience and spreading the objective and spiritual poverty. They affirmed that teaching should associate the military conquests. This is intended to persist on their control and lead the occupied countries to miss the cognizance of liberation and salvation from colonialism.
The old imperialist plans of teaching were negative. They propose to reduce or eradicate the educated individuals. When a revolution broke out against the Spanish colonialism in South America, in early 1800, the general commander raised a note to the king telling of their armies’ triumph. He also told that he treated the educated ones with an ultimate severity. Thus, as he expressed, he uprooted the idea of mutiny and rebellion. In North America, the black were interdicted from learning writing and reading. Detention and whipping were the punishment of the white that intend to teach any black how to read and write. This policy, however, failed. The imperialists realized their fault when they needed the economic conveniences of those people that require teaching the early youth for preparing them for certain jobs. Only then, they constituted teaching faculties but with special courses inciting to cherish the imperialists and embrace their ideological trends. Lord McAllen declared this fact in a report he wrote when was the chairman of the Teaching Committee in 1835 that decided English as the teaching language. He said, “A group works as translators between the millions of our subjects and us. This group should be Indian in color and blood, but English in taste, opinion, language, and thinking..
On the same account, France constituted the teaching courses in Algeria. As an article of that decision, it is recorded, “France has protected the Algerians and constituted justice to their country, and publicized security on their lands, and provided them with teaching and civilization. All these imply the Algerians’ duties to France. They should respect those who manage their country in the name of France. They should also show respect to the French flag.”.
This policy could not achieve its objects since teaching in colonies stirred up the spirits of struggle and revolt against the colonialists and demanding with liberty and independence. That caused the masters of the imperialist policy to hold a conference and decide changing the teaching courses in addition to the following findings:
“We must teach, not culture, the sons of the colonies. We must teach them practical affairs that make them good instrumentality in factories, stores, and farms without expanding the horizons of views and ideas to more than the required.”.
This was the last conclusion that the imperialists could attain for solving the problem of teaching in the colonies. Hence, teaching became barren and imperfect since it lacked the elements of vital edification by which the ideological life achieves advancement. Such a restricted teaching will cause harsh injuries to the citizens because it hinders the mental maturity and the march of the social development.

THE COMPREHENSIVE DEVASTATION

The Western teaching carried the signals of terminating and devastating all of the genuine values from which the nation drives its conceptual and social aspects. It also targeted this nation’s vital constituents so as to take it away from its factuality. Furthermore, the Western teaching doped this nation totally to make it unaware of the excruciating strikes that drove the elements of disintegration and collapse all over its parts. The following are the most hideous effects of this teaching invasion:

Exclusion of Islam:
The Western teaching systems spared no efforts for excluding Islam and eradicating any of its trace in the teaching entity. They tried to expose a brief picture that does not denote its goals or betrays its factuality.
Teaching has neglected the affairs of this great religion that treated all of the problems of mankind and posed sound courses for the reformation. Teaching did not refer to the procedures that were applied during the reign of the Islamic State. The constructive policy, which was grounded upon the pure right and sheer justice, was the distinctive feature of those procedures. They are surely the honorable all over history. The Islamic policy granted people the extensive freedoms in the fields of doctrine and ideology as well as deeds and words. It also presented that fantastic equity in which prerogatives and patronage had no place. All people are equal before the law and the right. Furthermore, the Islamic policy rendered justice in its entire concepts and enormity and burdened the government with the liability of protecting and guarding it since it is a personal human right that everyone should enjoy.
The Islamic economy had no single gesture in the Western teaching. As a matter of fact, this economy appeases the development and achieves the general economic life as it eradicates poverty and deprivation. In the Islamic economic system, it is the governments’ responsibility to wipe out poverty and its ghost, which is the equivalent and the match of atheism. Governments are also asked to get labor and prepare its opportunities equally among people. They must open the doors to the social security the mission of which is supervising and meeting the needs of the sick, the handicapped, and the poor whose daily income is insufficient. The monition on markets and the eradication of monopoly and exploitation are the governments’ duty according to the Islamic economy. The Western teaching neglected also the rules of the Islamic education that achieve the social coherence, development, disciplining, cooperation, and protection against irregularity and aberrance. Besides, it neglected the Islamic great activities in the fields of the individual education and reformation and being endowed with high traits and noble ethics. It also neglected the Islamic social systems that care for the comprehensive unity of Muslims. This unity comprises the unification of feelings, emotions, fate, and trends.
The Western teaching has neglected all of the Islamic opinions in the life aspects. Moreover, it threw dense screens on the Islamic illumination and guidance, and showed it in a shape and frame other than that revealed from God. The Imperialist systems confessed that their teaching methods tried to loosen the Islamic ties. St. Wales says, “The Western education is a means of releasing the Islamic ties.”. Steward Grover declared, “The Western education made Muslims quote from the Christian principals and be ready to convert to Christianity inadvertently.”.
The imperialist powers made use of all of their teaching and political media for the purpose of expelling Islam out of the life factuality since it threatened their interests and cupidity. The following is quoted from the decisions of the German Imperialist Conference: “The development of Islam threatens an immense danger on the maturity of our colonies. The conference recommends the government of multiplying the supervision and monition over the phases of this movement. The imperialist conference recommends resisting any activity that leads to the expansion of Islam, removing the obstacles that lie in the paths of Christianity, and benefiting by the missionaries’ activities that distribute the principals of civilization. Yet, it confirms the necessity of maintaining the plan of extrinsic neutrality in the religious affairs,”.
William Geofford Balcard says, “When we see the Quran and Mecca go away from the Arabs, only then we can make the Arab individuals slip in our civilization from which Mohammed and his book have taken him away.” Anyhow, the imperialism has been ceaselessly plotting against Islam for eradicating and expelling it.

Imposing the Imperialists’ Language
The colonialists imposed their language in the teaching systems and made it a part of the studying programs on which success and failure depend. The French made their language the pivot of the total lessons. They said, “First of all, schools should be acting as institutes for learning French.”.
The English also imposed their language in their colonies and gave it a specific lesson. They opted for their language as the main tongue in the institutes of medicine, chemistry, and physics in addition to the Arabic literature and the Islamic history. Each Muslim who desires to obtain a certificate should study in the European institutes or their graduates. Mohammed Saeed Al-Urfi comments, “It is definitely the ugliest, the most terrible, and the nastiest shame that the Arabs receive the arts of their language of that glorious honor and ancient civilization from the enemies of their religion and language. This is surely the evident deviation. We have never heard that the arbiters and references of any elevated or humble language are other than its sons. Unfortunately, the present Arab nation is excluded. History has never referred to a nation receiving its language from its waylaying enemies.”.
Imposing the imperialists’ language in schools and institutes serves only their nationality, language, interests, and cupidity, and establish a permanent relation between those scientific institutes and the imperialists. Mohammed Saeed says, “These foreign languages are the main reason beyond the publicity of the foreign propaganda and the vile part of their civilization. They are the paths through which the West could seize the Arab countries as well as those in the east. It made this nation forbear the traditions and lose the religion, language, fashion, and everything related to the past. The most unfamiliar matter is that the foreign languages are dissatisfied in equating the Arabic in the shares of studying, consideration, and success. They excelled it in all these shares. Mastery of one foreign language is sufficient for obtaining a certificate even if the Arabic is unmastered. Therefore, the governments are highly concerned with teachers of European languages by picking the most masterful teachers for this mission even in primary schools. Hence, pupils are brought up on cherishing the foreign languages as they notice the governments and nation care for this manner, and notice the teachers’ ability, authority, respect and distinctive payment. All these make pupils waste their national spirits.”.
The grand intellectuals and educationists denied imposing English languages in schools and institutes since it hinders mental growth and impedes the general course of studying in the country since students are not familiar with it. Ghandi says, “English language has stopped against conveying plurality of knowledge to the masses. The increasing interest in English language has burdened weighty things on teaching and interdicted children’s mentalities from enjoying natural life. Moreover, it has made them strange in their lands and homes.”.
Ghandi forbade English language in Indian schools for its great damages. He issued a decision that; “We will not permit teaching English because we realize that most of children’s time are wasted uselessly in memorizing English words and statements. Even if they are permitted to memorize and repeat these words and statements, they are unable of translating them into their mother language. They are also disable of benefiting by lessons of their teachers.”.
Islamic and Arab countries are able of expelling this language, which is one the imperialist residuals, and translate the textbooks into Arabic for the purpose of making the students’ tasks easier since this foreign language is overexerting them. Likewise, this process may enliven the Arabic that the imperialists attempted strenuously to kill and enervate. At any rate, mastering of more than one language is preferable and required according to doctrinal instructions. The Prophet (s) ordered Zeid bin Thabit of mastering the Hebrew. As an Arab proverb, it is said, “He whoever master a language of a people, will secure their evils.” Therewith, demanding with expelling the English languages from our scientific institutes is not an encouragement on restricting to the mother tongue. The solicitors of Islam are more required to master foreign languages than others so that they will broadcast solicitation to God and refute the suspected matters arisen against Islam.

Debilitation of the Arabic
Imperialist cadres use their powers entirely for enfeebling the standard Arabic, in which the Quran was revealed, and enlivening the colloquial. They aim at dragging the Muslims away from the huge conceptual wealth and masking the marvelous eloquence that draws people’s attention towards the Quran. Mohammed Saeed says, “The most important purpose beyond the colonialists’ opposing the Islamic education and preventing the new generations from reaching it, is their intendment to construct barriers between the generations and the Quran. They want these generations to misunderstand and misstate the Quran and its eloquence. Then they would affirm that the nowadays generations refute eloquence and heaviness of the ancient heritage; therefore, they need renewal and simplification. This renewal and simplification is the very hole from which the imperialists intend to push their daggers into the body of Arabic language. Hence, the last hope of this generation’s return to the Quran and its guidance would be unattainable.”.
Satti al-Hissari poses another reason:
“The imperialists conceived that the standard Arabic has been the only means of the Arabs’ communication through which ideas and tendencies are transferred among the Arab countries. They also though that when the movements of publicizing the standard Arabic in the Arab countries are aborted and supplanted by others supporting the colloquial accents, only then each country would have its own accent. This would remove the idea of independence or any notion calling for unity of the Arab countries. English and French assemblies favored this thought and began to broadcast colloquial accents in the Arab countries especially the independent. A good number of famed personalities and Orientalists supported the thought that incited some Arabs on publicizing it ignoring its origin source and intendment and menacing consequences.
Some European individuals called for this idea and claimed that wireless radiobroadcasting, parties of singing, theatre and the cinema would sustain centers of colloquial accents all over the Arab countries since they communicate more than the standard. They also claimed that plays of colloquial accents attract more audience. All these elements will finally give victory to the colloquial accent to overcome the standard.”.
This is the teaching and educational trend of the Western colonialists who have spared no efforts for executing this nation and eradicating its conceptual and mental constituents.