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Fatima is Fatima

by : Dr. Ali Shari'ati

Back You are here: Home Books The Educational System in Islam Characteristics Of Social Education

Characteristics Of Social Education


CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL EDUCATION

We should expose a brief picture of the characteristics of the Islamic social education, yet we have previously referred to some aspects.
-Muslims should stay away from the conceptual discrepancies, and eliminate fanaticism. The latter is the most important obligation, especially in this age in which the Islamic world is passing through the most decisive stage of its history. Thus, it is obligatory to unite before the harrowing hurricanes and the torrential misfortunes. It is highly considerable to cite the fact that Islam has antagonized fanaticism and called for leniency with people of the other heavenly religions. God says:
Say: O, followers of the Book! Come to an equitable proposition between us and you that we shall not serve any
but Allah and that we shall not associate aught with Him.
Allah does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against you on account of your religion, and
have not driven you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly. Surely, Allah
loves the doers of justice.
The Prophet (s) situated the principals and rules of this leniency. He said, “On the Resurrection Day, I will be the litigant against those who wrong, revile, overtax, or seize an ally –a non-Muslim individual that confederates Muslims-.”
The Prophet did not coerce any Jew or Christian on leaving their religions. He also ordered the governor of Yemen of this matter. The master churchmen declared this genuine spirit and great morality of Islam. Patriarch Esau Yamshu Mayaya said, “When the Lord enabled them to prevail on this world, the Arabs treated us justly, as you know. They have not been the enemies of Christianity. On the contrary, they have praised our religion, respected our sanctuaries, and aided our churches and abbeys.”. Sir Thomas Arnold says, “The victorious Arab Muslims treated the Christians with great lenience since the first century –of hegira-. This lenience has continued all over the consecutive centuries. We can rightly aver that the Christian tribes embraced Islam optionally and willingly. The current Arab Christians, who live among Muslims, are the best evidences on the intended lenience.”.
Fanaticism and mutual alienation of people of the various religions are the remotest from the Islamic logic and guidance. In his splendid recommendation to Malik al-Ashtar, Imam Ali (a) -the master of Islam and the pioneer of its renaissance- says, “People are of two kinds; either brothers of religion or matches of creation.”
He is surely wronging Islam and offending the factuality that whoever claims of Islam’s calling to malice and abomination of people of other religions. The late Sheik Mohammed Hussein al-Kashiful-Ghitta, the master reformist, composes a couple of poetic verses in which he says that the religion never discriminates since it is based upon peace and lenience..
Harmony and resting upon the guidance of the holy Quran are the best means of achieving renaissance and development. The holy Quran opens the door to amiability and fraternity. God says:
Certainly, the believers are brothers.
Islam has made this bond stronger than the bonds of lineage and blood. It has also instructed Muslims to care and conserve it for the sake of protecting their glory and dignity.
-Muslims should feed on and accustom to the moralities of their excellent religion so that their souls will shine and their essences advance. These moralities include reformation, God-fearing, sincerity, decency, chastity, loyalty, good manners and wording, activity, willpower, self-reliance, respecting and admitting people’s rights, appreciation of honest workers’ efforts, working for reforming people’s ill deeds, refuting the evil by the good, participating in people’s misfortunes and bliss, and using sympathy to the weak and the poor in addition to many other high traits and elevated ethics. Muslims would have been the masters of the nations and the guides of peoples had they applied these moralities to their lives.
-Muslims should have full acquaintance with their rights and obligations so that they will work for acquiring their rights and fulfilling their obligations, especially in the social fields. This will eradicate any aberrant behavior and cause the individuals to mingle in the society and believe in the nation’s goals and values. The main goal of the actual social education is preparing the individuals for the social life with its rules, regulations, traditions, and systems, and enabling them to adapt to the society in the frame of these rules. This makes them contribute in the society to be a productive element in the social body.

MILITARY EDUCATION

Islam has treated the military education so accurately and deeply. It has constituted the most advanced and genuine courses of educating the army, developing its potentials, and skill training. Islam has concerned deliberately with the armed forces for their being the nation’s armor and the defensive paling that guards against misfortunes and dangers. Imam Ali (a) describes the armed forces with unparalleled words. He says, “Soldiers are, by God’s permission, the fortresses of people, the garnish of the rulers, the might of the religion, and the ways of security. People cannot erect without them.”
The Imam vested people’s lives and constituents with their defensive power on which the nation’s glory, dignity, and independence depend. Commenting on these excellent words, al-Fukeiki says, “Look deeply to these statements. They contain eloquent secrets and marvelous intendments. You must not be admired if I tell that these words comprehended all of the chapters of Consultant Volndrov’s Nation in the war and all of the records of the military encyclopaedia, including the German, Italian, English, French and Japanese, in this age. The current international situation in the east and west and the governments’ struggles are the best evidences on our claim.”.
The most important topic for Islam is equipping the military forces with a nonesuch education that gives a unique behavior and conscience and pushes faithfully and sincerely on defending the homeland. In the earlier centuries, the Islamic army could record the most peculiar triumphs when they destroyed the rules of polytheism and achieved the miracle in spite of their few numbers and scanty arms. In the battle of Badr, the Islamic army used branches of date palm trees as weapons and faced the most modern arms in that time. They could defeat the polytheists. The main reason beyond Muslims’ triumph in that immortal battle was the perseverance and the power of faith.

Perseverance in wars:
Islam tends to make the armed forces enjoy high spirits of perseverance, faith, unity, congruity, and consistency. Discrepancy is the main cause of every defeat and loss. God says:
O, you who believe! When you meet a party, then be firm, and remember Allah much, that you may be successful.
And obey Allah and His Apostle and do not quarrel for then you will be weak in hearts and your power will
depart, and be patient. Surely, Allah is with the patient.
Surely, Allah loves those who fight in His way in ranks as if they were a firm and compact wall.
Imam Ali (a) instructed Mohammed, his son, during the battle of Jamal to be perseverant and firm. He said, “Do not move even if the mountains moved. Bite on the molar and firm your feet in the ground. Raise your sight to the last of the opposite army., cast down your eyes., and realize that triumph is God’s affair.”.
These golden words introduce the best description of firmness in battlefields. The Imam stressed on these instructions in many situations when he instructed the commanders.

Faith and self-denial:
The Islamic military education seeds faith and self-denial in the minds of the armed forces. These two elements were the distinctive features of the Islamic army in the first ages. Bliss and delight were noticed on the face of the martyrs. Soldiers welcomed the battlefields and used to express the days of their martyrdom as days of rapture and pleasure. After the battles, they were depressed because they had not caught martyrdom. Owing to their great faith, they thronged to death for God’s sake. Historians mention that Anas bin Annadr, during the battle of Uhud, passed by a group of Muslim soldiers who ceased their activities because they thought the Prophet had been killed. Anas said to them, “What will you do with your lives after the Prophet? Stand up and seek the death for the sake of what he had been killed for.” He then bravely pushed in the midst of the battlefield, until he was killed. After the battle, his body was the target of more than seventy strokes and stabs. His sister could recognize him only by a sign in his fingertip..
Historians also related that a Muslim soldier, under the commandment of Muslima bin abdil-Melik, watched a place that the Islamic army had chosen as a hole through which they would attack the enemies. The whole night, that soldier worked in that hole painstakingly. The next morning, the Islamic army noticed that the hole had been complete. Muslims attacked the enemy and triumphed. The commander then wanted that soldier to reward him, but he did not emerge. That night, the soldier came secretly to the commander and asked not to mention his name in the missive he would send to the caliph. The commander responded.
The Islamic army could achieve many triumphs and establish that great unprecedented empire due to this high spirit. Other nations embraced Islam faithfully and deeply because they could notice the dignity, prestige, and protection against exploitation and egocentricity.

Asceticism:
Asceticism and offering to God is a course in the programs of the Islamic military education. Historians mention that when the Islamic army, under the commandment of Amr bin al-As, directed to Egypt, the ruler sent spies. Two days later, the spies informed of their astonishment by that army. They said, “We saw people prefer death to life and modesty to arrogance. None had any desire or craving for this world. They sat on dust and ate on the knees. Their commander was not distinguished. None can distinguish the modest from the high-ranking, or the slave from the master. None of them was late from the prayers. They washed their limbs with water and submitted in their prayers.” The ruler was highly terrified. He said, “Those would remove even the mountains. We cannot fight them.” He then sent a missive to Amr in which he demanded with a group with whom he would conclude a peace treaty. Ebada bin as-Samit, the black, was the head of the group that Amr sent to the ruler. The ruler asked them to take the black away and precede another one he would discuss. The group said in one voice, “This black is the best of us in opinion and knowledge. He is our master, leader, and chief. We refer to his opinion.” The ruler could no longer hide his puzzlement when he asked, “How do you accept that a black is the best of you? He should be the most modest.” They answered, “He is the best in situation, precedence, opinion, and mentality. For us, blackness is not shame.”
He had to discuss with the black; therefore, he said, “Well, you black! Come and talk with me respectfully.” Ebada said, “I have heard your wording. I have left thousand men who are like me or blacker. If you see them, you will be more terrified. Thanks to God, I, despite my old age, never fear hundred men of my enemies even if they meet me collectively. The same thing I can say about my companions. This is for our desire to fight for God’s sake and seek His satisfaction. Our fighting God’s enemies is for neither a worldly desire nor an affair we lack. Yet, God has legalized this for us and given us the spoils. We do not care whether we have many riches or lack a single dirham. We do not ask for more than a single meal by which we meet our hunger and a cloak that protects us. This is sufficient for us. If we have many riches we will spend them for the sake of God and confine to what we have in our hands because the earthly bliss in not bliss. The actual bliss and luxury are those of the Hereafter. This is the decree of our Lord and the instruction of our Prophet, who taught us that our desire should never pass a single bit of food that meets our hunger, and a single cloak that covers our genitals. Our desire and work should be for obtaining God’s satisfaction and struggling His enemies.”
These words show the best items of the military education when soldiers and their commanders deny the material interests to seek God’s satisfaction and the reward of the Hereafter. The words also referred to the union of all of the ranks and units of the army, who enjoy the same idea that is based upon the Islamic guidance and spirit.
As the ruler of Egypt heard these words, he said, “O Virtuous man! I have heard your wording in which you discussed the affairs of your companions. I swear you have not attained this great standing for any reason other than adhering to what you have mentioned. Similarly, you have not conquered those because they sought the earthly affairs. Uncountable numbers of the strong and firm Roman soldiers have joined us. They do not care for their enemies, and you will not be able to conquer them because of your weakness and fewness. You have resided with us for months and undergone harsh conditions. We feel pity for your feebleness and fewness. We want to make peace with you and give each soldier two dinars and the commander one hundred and the caliph one thousand. You will take these golden dinars and leave to your country before those powerful soldiers arrive.”
The courageous leader did not care for the ruler’s threat of the Roman soldiers. He confirmed he would fight if the ruler and his people would not convert to Islam or pay the tributes submissively. He also provided excellent disputation, filled up with championships and sacrificing for God’s sake, with that ruler..
In any case, this situation unveils the great scope of the Islamic military education that is unique in its givings of firmness in the right and self-denial.

Caution against the foes:
The Islamic education feeds the army with caution and wariness against the foes’ movements. It instructs them to be permanently ready. God says:
O, you who believe! Take your precaution, then go forth in detachments or go forth in a body.
This Quranic text warns against sloth and negligence lest the foes may attack and seize. Had the Arab armies been cautious and ready, the setback of June 5 would not have humiliated them.
In this decisive stage of our history, we are facing a foxy enemy that waylays for swooping down on our homeland and terminating all of its powers. America, the source of aggression, is supporting our enemy and encouraging seizing more territories for enfeebling the Arab nation and controlling the fortunes and wealth there. Hence, the Arab armies must be cautious and scrupulous against trickery and the foes. They must also strive sincerely and faithfully for eradicating the dishonor of defeat and humiliation that our people had to undergo.

EDUCATION OF POLICE

Police is the most sensitive national sinew and the remarkable medium of security and protection. They are responsible for taking the procedures that protect against crimes and events. They also hold the liability of arresting and chasing the criminals. Nations are competing for caring for police by providing means of teaching, training, and immunizing with guarantees and luxury so that they will implement their huge responsibilities perfectly. Specialists in the educational affairs of police refer to some courses concordant to the Islamic principals. They are as follows:

Good manners:
Good manners are the pillars of man’s glory. Individuals’ values and social positions rely upon morals. Thus, policemen should be characterized by high traits to acquire people’s confidence and estimation.

Courage and bravery:
Courage and bravery must be in the top of the manners that policemen should enjoy. They are surely the ornamentation of policemen who must avoid timidity and alarm especially during carrying out their duties that are dangerous in most cases. Using this, they will satisfy their conscience and people’s appreciation.

Helping people:
Policemen should care deliberately for aiding people and responding to their calls. For instance, they should aid the wounded, in cases of emergency, and save the drowned, and extinguish fire. Policemen should provide other activities, such as guiding the lost, helping the weak, and the like.

Good conduct:
Policemen ought to conduct well in any state. They should be firm and lenient, but without violation and inability. They should not use coarseness in situations of leniency or the opposite. They should conduct suitably.

Politeness in answering:
For gaining people’s respect and appreciation, policemen ought to answer people’s questions politely with firmness, self-possession, and caution.

Justice and equity:
Within the obligations of policemen are the commitment of justice, persistence of inequity, settling people’s rights, and precluding the wrong. Policemen should always be in the line of the wronged, because they are the guards of the law and the country. They should be familiarized that there is no screen between the supplication of the wronged and God. They should also know that the most preferable thing to God is supporting the wronged and that justice is the pillar of kingship. God says:
Surely, Allah commands you to make over trusts to their owners and that when you judge between people you judge with justice.

People’s confidence:
Policemen should work for acquiring people’s confidence. They should be servants, not masters, of people. Yet, they must keep up the dignity of their positions and do only what they are authorised by the law. They must carry out their obligations cordially to acquire people’s confidence and collaboration. This will surely bring about the best fruits to security and the country.

Decency:
Decency should be the center of policemen’s moralities. They should avoid any matter that may infract their positions. Finally, they should evade any satanic idea.

Sincerity:
Sincerity and avoiding fabrication are the most consequential qualities that policemen should appropriate. They are the most influential in the soundness of conscience and people’s service. Policemen are also obliged to witness rightly before courts. Concealment of testimonies is the most critical forbidden matter in Islam. God says:
And do not conceal testimony. And whoever conceals it, his heart is surely sinful.
In courts, policemen are required to report the very facts. Condemnation, however, is not their task.

Fulfillment of obligations:
Policemen should realize and fulfill their responsibilities thoroughly so that they would avoid blemishes and faults and acquire the community’s confidence and appreciation.

Adhering to the religion:
Policemen should adhere to their religion and accede to the ethics and morals of Islam. People would not have encountered any crime or misfortune had they only adhered to the religion.

Implementation of duties:
Policemen, as considered as the executive body of judiciary, must implement their missions properly and submissively. They should opt for wisdom in their activities and avoid exploiting their authorisation in affairs that are out of their tasks. They should leave good influence in their behavior and fulfillment.

God-fearing:
Policemen must fear God Who watches all of the deeds and to Whom every thing returns. Violation of people’s interests causes God’s ire and punishment.

Remuneration:
Officials must grant rewards and bonuses to policemen completely. This may leave an influential effect in implementing their tasks thoroughly.