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Fatima is Fatima

by : Dr. Ali Shari'ati

Avidity


AVIDITY

Avidity is a mental vice that the Islamic education has tended to uproot and eradicate. Its source is the excessive engagement in the earthly affairs, the greedily coveting of collecting money and the complete negligence of death. The Prophet (s) referred to this phenomenon by saying, "Had son of Adam had two valleys of riches, he would have wished of obtaining a third. Nothing fills his interior but dust.". "Richness is not the abundance of items. It is the self-contentment.".
The Prophet (s) also warned against the excessive avidity. He said, "O people! Calm down in seeking your livelihood. Man will never obtain more than the decreed, and will never leave this world before receiving the decided.". Imam al-Hassan (a) said, "Avidity is the enemy of mentalities. Adam was expelled from the Paradise because of avidity."
Avidity urges unheedingly on obtaining riches. Man is inconsiderate that earnings and sustenance are in God's hand that He bestows to whomever He desires and prohibits from whomever He desires. Man's excessive endeavors will never change anything of the limited sustenance. Ibn Zureiq the poet assures this meaning. He affirms that God had already distributed the individuals' earnings; hence, it is nonsense to exert excessive efforts for gaining and profiting.
Avidity draws to many sufferings and pitfalls, seduces to strive and work hard, deprives of rest and settlement, and arouses grief and pains. The best way of getting rid of this ill manner is the contentment to God's decree and contemplating that these riches will surely inherited by others. Hence, if the riches are ill-gotten, then the sin will be stuck to the collector while their benefits will be the inheritors'.

PARSIMONY

Parsimony is a vile quality and an ill manner. It is one of the fruits of adhering to the worldly affairs, as ethicists affirm.

Reality of parsimony:
For ethicists, parsimony is the stinginess in the situations of the necessary giving. It is the preference of abstinence in any matter. Imam al-Hassan (a), when was asked about the meaning of parsimony, expressed, "It is to consider any spending as a loss.". This is the most accurate definition of parsimony.

Warning against parsimony:
Islam has struggled and warned against this aspect. The Quran and the prophetic traditions refer to this topic in many texts. God says:
Those who are niggardly and bid people to be niggardly and hide what Allah has given to them out of His grace.
And let not those deem, who are niggardly in giving away that which Allah has granted them out of His grace, that
it is good for them. Nay, it is worse for them. They shall have that whereof they were niggardly made to cleave to
their necks on the resurrection day.
Many prophetic texts condemn parsimony.
The Prophet (s) said, "The parsimonious is remote from God and remote from the Paradise.". "Parsimony is a tree rooted in the hell-fire. Only the parsimonious will be in the hell-fire.". "Beware of niggardliness. It wiped out the past nations. As they responded to niggardliness, they killed each other, violated the forbidden, and cut off their relations.". "Niggardliness and faith do never combine in a Muslim's heart.". Imam al-Hassan (a) said, "Parsimony comprises all of the vices and defects and weeds out the heart amiability."
Many other texts warn Muslims against this evil trend that is the head of every lechery and blotch.

Protection against parsimony:
The best way of protecting against this disease is considering deliberately the bad consequence of adhering to it, especially after departing this world. Every man will be surely asked about the money he leaves in this world. Punishment will fall upon those who collect ill-gotten riches and those who collect the riches legally, but care for them excessively. Besides, the parsimonious are socially degraded and scorned. Sheik an-Naraqi says, "The best way of treating parsimony is dissecting its causes, which is the fond of riches. The reason is surely the fondness of the lusts that are gotten through money only. The excessive hope is another reason. If a man expects he will leave this life soon, he will never think of collecting money parsimoniously and saving it for the descendants.".

MALICE

Malice is a vile tendency and a state of rage that may destroy and terminate since it is hidden in the minds. Islam cares for purifying the mentalities from the vices and evils of malice. The Prophet said, “The faithful believer should not be malicious.”
Envy is the source of malice that ruptures the relations, leads to animosity, and drives people into tremendous evils. Slander and schadenfreude are within the outcomes of malice. Malice may result in other bad consequences, such as mockery and other illegal matters that create dishonor and corrupt the religion. Disorder and depression usually affect the malicious since they live in incessant and unsettled grief, pains, and animosity.

Protection against malice:
- The malicious should consider that the internal animosity takes away from faithfulness and approached to the hypocrites and the deviants.
- The malicious should remark that malice brings about pains and suffering without gaining any profit.
- The malicious are advised of looking upon the courses of the great men of history whom were described of good behavior and virtuous moralities. Imam Ali (a) says, “If you overcome your enemy, you should consider pardoning him as the gratitude for the overcoming.”
People went on supplicating to God against the unknown larcener that thieved some dirhams of Abdullah bin Masud, the grand companion of the Prophet (s). Abdullah answered, “O Allah! If it was an exigent need that drove that man to thieve those dirhams, then I implore thee to bless him. If he thieved due to intending to commit a sin, then I implore thee to make it the last of his sins.”
A wise man said, “If you are told that somebody was reviling at you, you should answer: He must have been unaware of my defects totally, lest he would not utter only these words.”

ARROGANCE
Islam has warned against arrogance and self-conceit that create egoism and tyranny. They are also the indications of ignorance and pride. God said:
Do not attribute purity to your souls. He knows him best who guards against evil. Therefore, enter the gates of
hell, to abide therein. So certainly evil is the dwelling place of the proud.
The Prophet said, “Three matters are annihilating. They are the obeyed niggardliness, the pursued fancy, and self-esteem.”. “Arrogance consumes the good deeds like fire when consumes wood.”. Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “Doom is the outcome of arrogance.”.
Islam has antagonized the evil tendency of arrogance that is originated from ignorance, pride, and rashness.

Blights of arrogance:
Arrogance causes serious mental blights, the most notable of which are as follows:
- Arrogance generates pride, self-esteem, and precedence.
- It results in the oblivion of sinning and the abandonment of God and the Hereafter.
-It perverts the deeds that are offered purely to God. As he was asked about the arrogance that perverts the good deeds, Imam Musa (a) said, “Arrogance is of different classes. A class makes the ill deeds seem to be good and admiring. Another class secures, falsely, from God; hence, the bearers of such an arrogance think they do favor to God, while the truth is that God is doing favors to everybody.”.
- It arouses self-esteem. The arrogant thinks of being guarded against God’s acts and punishment, and thinks he have many rights that are mandated upon God because he performs some rites.
-It leads to boasting and trespassing.
- It results in dictation and challenging the right.

Types of arrogance:
There are several types of arrogance. They are as follows:
- The vanity about richness and amenities. God said:
And he possessed much wealth; so, he said to his companion, while he disputed with him: I have greater wealth
than you, and am mightier in followers.
As the Prophet (s) noticed a rich man roll his clothes while he was associating with a poor man, he said, “What! Do you anticipate that his poverty will affect you?”
- The vanity about the abundance of wealth and the power of the family. The holy Quran refers to this phenomenon. God says:
And they say: We have more wealth and children, and we shall not be punished.
- The vanity about power. The holy Quran exposes the story of the tribe of Ad who said, “Who is more powerful than we are?” This sort of vanity creates wars and seizure. The powers that are admired of their arms will tend to overcome the less powerful.
- The vanity about lineage and nationalities. Islam has antagonized such an ill quality and ruled of combating anyone that may call to it, because this racism disunites Muslims and promotes the variant trends. According to the Islamic viewpoint, Muslims should be one body of equal organs.
The vanity about ill opinions. God says:
What! Is he whose evil deed is made fairseeming to him so much so that he considers it good?
They think that they are well versed in skill of the work of hands. This is the compound ignorance.
- The vanity about knowledge. The students may esteem themselves and despise others. This is the most influential disease that deconstructs knowledge and takes away from God. The Prophet said, “The blight of knowledge is self-complacency.”
- The vanity about deeds and worship. This sort of arrogance nullifies the worship and creates pride.

Protection against arrogance:
The best way of guarding against arrogance is the thorough self-consideration. Man is the target of various calamities and misfortunes especially when none can realize or predict the coming. After death, man will not be more than an obscure thing and a mass of valueless dust. What for should man be arrogant? Any consideration and judgment will remove the elements of arrogance and takes back to the right.

OSTENTATION
Ostentation is a serious sin. It indicates mental vices. The ostentatious do not have any relation with God. Islam has warned against exhibitionism and ordered Muslims of purifying themselves from its germs. The holy Quran, also, exposes and warns against ostentation. God says:
Surely, the hypocrites strive to deceive Allah, and He shall requite their deceit to them, and when they stand up to
prayer, they stand up sluggishly. They do it only to be seen of men and do not remember Allah save a little.
Whoever hopes to meet his Lord, he should do good deeds, and not join any one in the service of his Lord.
Woe to the praying ones who are unmindful of their prayers, who do good to be seen and withhold the necessaries of life.
The reports that deal with and warn against the ostentation are uninterrupted.
The Prophet (s) said, “The most dangerous thing that I warn you against is the minor polytheism… It is the ostentation. On the Resurrection Day, God will say to the ostentatious: I reward the servants for their deeds. Go to those whom you were showing in the world. Will they reward you?”. “God will not admit any deed that possesses a bit of ostentation.”
Imam Ali (a) said, “Fear God exhaustively, and work for Him without seeking any reputation. He, whoever works for other than God, will be attached to those for whom he works.”.
Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “Dedicate your affairs to God’s sake. Do not make them for people’s sake. Whatever is intended to God, goes to God, and whatever is intended to people will never ascend to God.”
Imam ar-Rida (a) said, “You should work for other than ostentation or reputation. He, whoever works for other than God, will be attached to those for whom he works.
Ostentation is rebuked and considered as a sort of polytheism that never ascends to God. Incentives of ostentation:

Incentives of ostentation are as follows:
- Showing off piety and virtuousness for winning people’s respect and veneration.
- Showing off for holding some religious positions, the terms of which are piety and religiousness, such as judiciary and imamate,
- Showing off for winning people’s confidence, and planning for embezzling their trusts, or the like.
Only those who sacrifice the Hereafter for worldly affairs may take the path of ostentation. The ostentatious individuals, in fact, worship others besides God, and dress piety as a means of achieving the narrow aims.

Ostentation invalidates worship:
Muslim Jurists affirm unanimously that ostentation invalidates the worship. There is no difference in the rule whether such a state of ostentation occurs in the first of the ritual, in the middle or in any part of it. Likewise, ostentation invalidates the rites even if it is intended in some parts that are out of the obligatory ritual. For instance, the prayer is invalid when the performer shows off by joining a collective prayer, or choosing a definite mosque, imam, time or place..
The actual worship is engaged in the sincerity to God. When ostentation occurs, the rituals will be invalid and should be repeated.

Treatment of ostentation:
Ethicists mention a number of matters that eliminate this virulent defect.
- The ostentatious should clear the incentives of ostentation, such as the fondness of praise and greediness in people’s amenities.
- The ostentatious should regard the blights and calamities that are resulted from ostentation, such as the corruption of the deeds and God’s scorn.
- The ostentatious should consider that people’s praise and confidence would not improve the livelihood, since sustenance is God’s concern, and that whoever seeks sustenance from other than God will gain nothing but humility and decline.
- The ostentatious should concern the grief and the lack of tranquility that affect them because of presuming people’s emotions and trends. They should also remark that nothing would please people who have contradicting opinions and tendencies. This will surely bring about the most intolerable suffering and heartache and deprive of any profit.
- The ostentatious should consider that God will sooner or later divulge the ill intendments and unveil the actuality in this world or in the Hereafter. Thus, no profit is gained from the deceptive efforts. The ostentatious will surely get rid of their ill habits if they consider these treatments carefully.

CONCEIT

Conceit is one of the mental defects that the Islamic education has treated and purified the mentalities from its germs.

Reality of conceit:
Ethicists mention that the reality of conceit is the minds resting to what accords the fancies confusedly and conceitedly. He is deceitful that whoever esteems his present or fated success. They also disclose that deceit is composed of two matters:
First: esteeming the vile as good.
Second: the fondness of lusts and rage..

Warning against conceit:
Islam has warned against conceit because it ruins the minds and causes sufferings and leads to commit the forbidden matters. God says:
Let not this world’s life deceive you, nor let the arch-deceiver deceive you in respect of Allah.
But you caused yourselves to fall into temptation, and you waited and doubted and vain desires deceived you till
the threatened punishment of Allah cane, while the arch-deceiver deceive you about Allah.
The Prophet (s) said, “How excellent the sleep and the nature of the courteous are! They excel the staying up and the efforts of the idiot. A bit of piety and certitude is preferable to the conceited even if it is as much as this earth.”.
Imam as-Sadiq (a) said, “The conceited people are poor in this world and grieved in the Hereafter. They sold the best for the worst. Do not be conceited by yourselves. Your riches and health may allure you, thinking you will persist. The long age, the children, and the associates will not save you. Your beauty, wish, and gaining the target may allure you, assuming your being sincere and true. Your remorse for delinquency in worship may allure you, while God realizes that your heart has the opposite. You may undertake excessively for adoration while God wants mere sincerity. You may take pride in your knowledge and lineage while you are unaware of the unseen damages. You may imagine that you supplicate to God while you are supplicating to someone else. You may think you are advising people while you intend your own interests. You may reproach yourself while you are actually praising.”.
This saying indicates all of the incentives and causes of deceit. The Imam warned against all sides of conceit and called to purify the mentalities against its deviation and sins.

Protection against conceit:
The eradication of fondness of lusts and fancies is the best protective way against conceit. It is essential to cognize that we will leave this world to the world of the right. Looking upon these facts may take back to the straight path.

MENDACITY

Mendacity is the origin of every vice and the source of every defect. It is a hateful quality. The honorable and the virtuous are remote from such an ill manner that Islam has opposed.

Censure of mendacity:
Islam has warned against this ill characteristic. God says:
Only they forge the lie who do not believe in Allah’s communications, and they are the liars.
So, He made hypocrisy to follow as a consequence into their hearts till the day when they shall meet Him because
they failed to perform towards Allah what they had promised with Him and because they told lies.
The Prophet (s) said, “Beware of fabricating. It leads to licentiousness, which leads to the hell-fire.”. “May I inform you of the grandest sin? It is polytheism and impiety to parents and telling lies..
Imam Ali (a) said, “The servants –of God- will not find the good taste of faithfulness before they quit intentional and unintentional fabrication.”
Imam Ali bin al-Hussein (a) said, “Beware of insignificant, influential, unintentional, and intentional lies. Fibs lead to fabrication.
Imam al-Baqir (a) said, “God the Praised has made locks for the vices. He made the consuming of intoxicants the keys of these locks. Mendacity is viler than consuming intoxicants.”
Imam al-Askari (a) said, “All of the vices were confined in a house the key of which is mendacity.”
Moreover, many other narratives forbid this evil quality and declare God’s punishment to those who commit this depravity.

Reasons of mendacity:
Many causes that are originated from self-weakness and disloyalty to God incite to commit mendacity. They are as follows:
- Fabricating lies for gaining a delusive profit or guarding against an anticipated damage. This anticipation is dictated by the soul, which is the incessantly demanding with evil.
- Fabricating lies for profiting by a good livelihood or approximating the profitable wealthy. The source of such mendacity is self-degradation and humiliation. The comic mendacity is also a repulsive feature. It stands for forging lies for the sake of making others laugh. This property drags to illegal matters without gaining any benefit.
- Fabricating lies for disturbing and wreaking the enemies. These matters incite to describe false questions and revile by inaccurate accusals.
- The most notable incentive of mendacity is the lack of piety and religiousness. Those who fear God never commit mendacity.
Mendacity may be an irremovable habit if it controls the mind. It is said that if suckling of mendacity is found sweet, it will be very difficult to wean. The mendacious are socially disrespected and any said lie will be naturally imputed to them.

Sorts of mendacity:
The sorts of mendacity are as follows:
- Forging lies against God and the Prophet. This stands for the intentional ascribing unsaid statements to God and the Prophet. Some of the companions, who merchandized with their religion and sold their Hereafter to Muawiya, such as Samara bin Jundub, Abu Hureira, and Amr bin al-As, purposed to forge lies against the Prophet. Muawiya bestowed them abundantly; therefore, they counterfeited the prophetic traditions and falsified the sayings of censuring the Prophet’s infallible household and praising others for gaining Muawiya’s gold and power. That was the most calamitous damage that Islam had to encounter, since such false reports corrupted Muslims’ doctrinal lives and deformed the religion’s signs and rulings. For Shias, forging lies against God and the Prophet invalidates the ritual fasting of the month of Ramadhan.
- Perjury, which wastes people’s property, honors, and souls. It is surely the most horrendous crime that eradicates justice and systems. The Prophet (s) said, “May I inform you of the grandest sins? They are polytheism, impiety to parents and –emphatically- perjury.” Perjury in insignificant or grand matters is indifferent. Judiciaries should chastise and distrust the perjurers.
- Mendacity for mocking people. This is also an ugly forbidden matter since it stands for abusing others. Islam, however, protected people’s dignities and forbade debasing and deriding them. Mendacity brings about God’s ire and scorn, and causes the mendacious to lose lechery and the failing of justice and trustfulness.

Warrants of mendacity:
Islam has permitted mendacity in cases of attaining some social benefits when the way of telling the truth is blocked. These cases are as follows:
- Telling lies is permitted when it is intended for saving a Muslim from the unjust ruler’s fist. When a tyrant intends to kill, usurp, or dishonor a Muslim, it becomes obligatory to tell false things, if there is no other way, for saving that individual. In this case, “the vice of mendacity retreats because the obligation of salvation is effective,” as scholars of jurists affirm.
- Telling lies is permitted when it is intended for refitting ruptured relations. In case the reuniting of ruptured relations relies upon a fib or telling untrue things, it is not unacceptable to fib or invent a matter, provided that there is no other solution, that re-gathers the hearts of the adversary parties at odds and dislodges the spirits of rivalry and animosity. The Prophet (s) said, “He is not a liar that who makes peace between two rivalry parties when he says good wording or publicizes good deeds.”. Abu Kahil reported: As two of the Prophet’s companions were engaged in discrepancy, I came to one of them and told, falsely, that the other party used to praise and applaud him. I went to the other party and did the same thing. Hence, I could make peace between them. Then, I considered that I had made peace between those two, but violated my own personality due to telling lies. I came to the Prophet (s) and cited the problem. “O Abu Kahil!” said the Prophet, “Make peace between people even by means of…” He referred to fabrication.
Islam has greatly concerned with making peace and reconciliation between discrepant parties, and preferred this process to the general rituals of prayers and fasting. Rivalry opens the door to evils, ruptures the united word, and spreads the spirits of animosity and contest among Muslims.
- Telling lies is permitted when it is intended for winning a battle. War depends upon trickery. If Muslims’ triumph and the foes’ defeat rely upon fabrication, it becomes obligatory to lie. The Prophet (s) said, “Every fabrication is forbidden except telling lies in wars, since wars depend upon trickery.”
- Telling lies is permitted when it is intended for reconciliation among the fellow wives. Polygamous husbands are required to deceive each wife that he loves her more than he loves the others, for relieving them and saving from rivalry and quarrels.
Unfortunately, people have opened the portals of mendacity as wide as possible. They have stuck to it so adhesively that they got used to it. Deceptive flattery, which is surely a sort of mendacity, has become a habit. For instance, when an individual tries to get rid of the embarrassment of breaching a promise, he may cite falsely an ailment as his excuse. Fathers also used to instruct their sons to tell those who visit them of their absence in order to avoid the visitors. These sorts of social hypocrisy have been prevalent nowadays that even some poets recommended of sticking to them in the social relations. This flattery is surely a social defect that is originated from cowardice, timidity, and lack of mental disciplining.
It is strange that some writers, especially the Orientals, have purposed to forge lies in their writings. For instance, the Islamic Encyclopedia Britannica is filled up with intrigues, inventions, and lies especially in matters pertaining to Islam and some leaders. We have referred to many examples of their forged lies that are intended defame Islam and wrong the Imams.
By the same token, the books of Dr. Ahmed Amin and Dr. Ahmed Shibli that are pertaining to Shias and some of their doctrinal beliefs are filled up, shamelessly, with lies and fabrications.
At any rate, people used to fabricate and lie. Indisputably, this deadly defect destroys all of the moral virtues. Degradation and collapse will be the inescapable fate of any nation that takes fabrication as a course.

Protection against mendacity:
The following are the ways of protection against mendacity:
- Deliberate concern of the ceaseless chastisement that God threatened the liars who gain nothing from mendacity.
- Considering the ordeals and distresses, the most important of which is the social degradation and distrust that is originated from mendacity.
- Avoiding associating with the evildoers, who do not refrain from forging lies, and clinging to the virtuous and the religious ones so that their deeds, habits, and morals may influence and help in uprooting the evil customs.
Educators are required to activate their notable roles for extirpating this malignant disease and saving the new generations by citing the terrible damages of mendacity that leads to degradation and ruin.