2. " He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and He has not taken any son (unto Himself), nor has He any partner in His dominion, and He created everything, then ordered them in due proportions."
Polytheists, Jews, and Christians each believed in a way that Allah has got a partner or child, and the holy Qur'an has rejected these false beliefs many times, including this verse that describes Allah, Who has descended Furqan, with four attributes one of which is, in fact, the base and the rest are its results and branches. First it says:
" He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, ..." 6
Yes, He is the ruler of all universe, the skies and the earth, and nothing is out of His sovereignty. With regard to the matter that the Qur'anic word /lahu/ has come before the phrase /mulk-us-samawat/, and according to Arabic literature it is a reason for limitation and exclusivity, it is understood that the real domination and authority of the skies and the earth belongs to Him (s.w.t), for His rulership is general, perpetual and real, contrary to other rulerships that are unstable, insignificant, and, in the meantime, dependent on Him.
Then polytheists' beliefs are one by one rejected:
"... and He has not taken any son (unto Himself),..."
Basically needing child, as we said before, is whether for using his or her physical power, or for having him or her at the time of loneliness. Certainly none of the above needs are part of His Pure Essence. In this way, the Christians' belief that Jesus Christ (a.s.) is the Son of God and the belief of the Jews that Ezra is the Son of God both are rejected. Moreover, Arab polytheist's belief in this regard is rejected.
Then the verse continues saying:
"... nor has He any partner in His dominion,..."
Arab polytheists believed in partner or partners which they considered as partner of Allah. When they wanted to worship, they turned to them for the sake of intercession and they asked their help for fulfilling their needs so that they explicitly uttered ugly and polytheistic words and sentences when they wanted to say 'Labbayk' (at your service) at the time the rites of Hajj, saying: " I accepted Your call, oh Lord,
Who has no partner except the partner that belongs to You and You are the Owner of this partner and You are the Owner of what he owns." The holy Qur'an rejects all these vain imaginations. In the last sentence, it implies that not only Allah has created all things but also He has precisely defined their proportions and administrations. The verse says:
"... and He created everything, then ordered them in due proportions."
The dualists' belief, which implies that part of the world creatures is created by Lord and the other part is created by Devil, is also rejected. According to dualists, creation is divided between Lord and Devil, because they believe that the world is a collection of the bad and the good, while a real monotheist believes that except goodness there is nothing in the world, and if there is any bad it is relative or negative or it is the result of our deeds.
1. Exact measurement of creatures: Not only the calculated stable system of the world is among the strong reasons of monotheism and knowing Allah (s.w.t.), but also its exact measurement is another clear reason. We cannot consider measurement of various creatures of this world and its calculated quality and quantity as effect of accident. It is not in line with probability theory.
Scientists have studied about it, and uncovered some mysteries which cause the astonishment of man so much that he unintentionally begins to praise Allah's magnificence and might. Here we refer to some of them:
Scientists say that if the outer cover of the earth were 10 feet thicker, there would be no oxygen, a vital material of life. Or if the depth of seas were several feet more than what is today, all oxygen and carbon of the earth would be absorbed and it would be impossible to have a vegetable or animal life on the earth,and when most probably the crust of the earth and the water of the seas would absorb the whole existing oxygen, and for his growth and man would have to wait for the growth of plants so that through them he could use needed oxygen.
According to studious researches, it gets clear that it may be possible to gain needed oxygen for human from various sources, but the important matter is that this amount of oxygen is as much as the amount that has scattered in the air for man's use.
If the earth atmosphere were a little thinner than what is today, heavenly bodies and shooting stars, that cannot reach the earth, would hit the earth million times a day.
These heavenly bodies move 6 to 40 miles per second and if they hit any place, that place will be burnt and destroyed. If their speed were less than what it is, and for example equal to the speed of a bullet, all of them would come to the earth and it is clear that they would destroy everything.
If man himself were placed on the way of one of the smallest heavenly bodies, the intensity of the heat of them, that move 90 times faster than a bullet, would rend and destroy him.
The density of the earth atmosphere is to the extent that it allows cosmic rays pass as much as the growth of plants needs. And all harmful microbes are destroyed in the atmosphere and beneficial vitamins are created by them. While there are various vapors that have come out of the depth of the earth during many centuries, nevertheless, the air of the earth does not get polluted and it is always well balanced for the continuity of man's life.
The great machine that creates and keeps such strange balance is the very seas and oceans from which vital and nutritional materials, rain, moderation of air and plants and finally man himself originate. Every person who is able to understand must bow down before the sea and thank it for its favours.
2. Strange proportion and very exact balance that is between oxygen and carbonic acid gas, that is for creating animal and vegetable life, has attracted the attention of all thinkers and scientists and make them think about it.
The importance of carbonic acid gas is still uncovered to many people. It must also be mentioned that carbonic acid gas is the gas that is used for making fizzy drinks.
Carbonic acid gas is a heavy and dense gas that is fortunately near the surface of the earth. It separates from oxygen uneasily and with problem. When a piece of wood is set on fire, wood, which includes oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, is analysed chemically and carbon will be mixed with oxygen very quickly and carbon acid gas is so created. Its hydrogen is quickly mixed with oxygen and water vapour will be created. Smoke is pure carbon which is not mixed up.
When man breathes, he inhales some oxygen. Blood takes it to all places of body. Oxygen burns food in various cells slowly and with a weak heat. Its vapour and carbonic acid gas goes out. Carbonic acid gas that is created by burning of food in cells returns to lung and with later breathings it goes out of the body. Thus all living creatures inhale oxygen and exhale carbonic acid gas.
3. How wonderful the way of controlling and balancing in this world is. Because of this natural balance, animals cannot dominate the world, no matter how much they are huge or brutal. Only man can change this natural balance and transfer animals and plants from one place to other places. By the way, he pays the fine of his impudence, because blights and pests cause him irretrievable harms.
The following story is a good example that shows how man must observe this balance for the sake of his life:
Some years ago in Australia a famous plant named Cactus was planted near farms fences and because no pest could harm it at that time it started to grow a lot strangely. Very soon it covered an area that was as big as England and people had to escape from villages and hamlets. It destroyed all their farms and made farming impossible.
The local inhabitants used whatever they had, but nothing they could do. Australia confronted the danger and threat of stubborn Cactus army. Scientists and researchers started to find a solution for this dangerous problem. At last, they found out that there is an insect that only feeds on stem, leaf and root of Cactus and except this food it eats nothing. And it multiplies easily and no enemy it has in Australia.
In this case animal defeated plant and there is no danger of Cactus today. And when Cactus was destroyed, that insect also disappeared. Only some of them remained so that they control the growth of Cactus. Creation has set this balance in the nature and it is very beneficial, too.
What has happened that malaria mosquito has not spread all over the world and has not destroyed man generation,while common mosquitoes can also be found even in polar areas?
Or what happened when the mosquito of yellow fever came near New York but did not kill all people of the world? Or what has happened that tsetse fly is created in a way that can live only in equatorial areas and has not vanished the human generation throughout the world? (All of these have been prevented by a very calculated system.)
It is only enough to remember the fact that with what pests and maladies we have fought during many centuries. How wonderfully we were formerly protected against these maladies while we did not know any health matters! 7